Programmable logic controller
A programmable logic controller q ( PLC ), or programmable controller is a device that replaces the conventional automation table all auxiliary relays, time, the counters of an industrial computer digital q having become resistant and adapted for controlling production processes, such as production lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high control reliability and ease of programming and fault diagnosis process.
First developed in the automotive industry to provide flexible, durable and easily programmable controllers to replace hard relay wiring and timers. They have since been widely adopted as highly reliable automation controllers, and are suitable for harsh environments. A PLC Programmable logic controller is an example of a “hard” system operating in real-time as the results must be generated in response to the system input conditions within a limited time, otherwise, there will be unintentional operation.
They can be designed for multiple digital and analogue I / O settings, extended temperature fluctuations, electrical noise immunity, and shock and vibration resistance. Programs to control the operation of the machine are usually stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory.
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The PLC was born in the US automotive industry. Before PLC, relays, sequins, cam timers, percussion timers, and closed-loop controllers were regulated for control, sequencing, and logic for the safe construction of cars. Of these they could number in the hundreds or even thousands, the process of updating these installations was very time consuming and costly, and they also needed electricians to connect each relay and change their functional characteristics.
When digital computers became available, general-purpose programmable devices were used to test sequential and combinational logic in industrial processes. However, these early computers required special programmers and strict environmental controls for temperature, cleanliness, and power quality. To meet these challenges, the PLC was developed with many key features. It would not tolerate the shop-floor environment, would support bit-format input and output in an easily scalable way, would not require years of training to use, and would allow the operation to be monitored. Since many industrial processes have schedules that can be easily addressed with response times in milliseconds, in modern (fast, small, reliable) electronics greatly facilitate the building of reliable controllers, and performance could be exchanged for their reliability.