electrical enginering

13 essential tools for electricians

Tool kits are the electrician’s faithful companions. They are present on every assignment and their reliable content serves to accurately and safely apply the hard-earned skills. However, with all the tools that electricians have to choose from these days, finding the right one can be difficult. In our guide, you can read which really every professional must have with them.

tools for electricians

1. Stripping tool

Stripping tools are used to easily remove the insulating outer sheath of cables in order to attach terminals or plugs to the inner wire by crimping or soldering. Some wire strippers also allow electricians to cut directly through the copper or wire in a cable.

Types of stripping tools

Wire strippers are also known as wire strippers. However, many other styles are available including:

Wire strippers are also known as wire strippers. However, many other styles are available including:

Adjustable Wire Stripper – these handy tools are particularly useful for irregular wire diameters and gauges.
Triple Action Wire Stripper – These wire strippers are designed for heavier gauge wire with heavy-duty insulation and are designed to perform rotary, linear or spiral cuts.
Wire Strippers – these feature V-shaped wire strippers for thicker, multi-wire cables.
Rotary Cutters – These are ultra-compact wire strippers that use a rotary motion for a clean cut.
stripping gun – thanks to their self-adjusting blade, these tools are particularly easy to use.
Semi-Automatic Wire Strippers – use a mechanism to strip insulation with a single squeeze of the handles, quickly cutting through the wire.
Manual Wire Strippers – are among the standard hand-operated models, but typically include a spring-loaded handle and safety latch.
Steel Armor Wire Strippers – This model is designed for use with copper, steel or aluminium sheathed cables. Click here for electrical training

Other designations:

⦁ wire stripper
⦁ Cable stripping tool

Insulated (VDE) screwdrivers

Screwdrivers are one of the most traditional tools and are still essential for most electricians as they often need access to screw-capped enclosures. Multiple sizes and shapes are available to accommodate the wide variety of screw types.

Screwdrivers work through the simple application of torque – turning force – transmitted through the head of the screwdriver to a mating slot on the screw. Electrician’s screwdriver features specially insulated handles that ensure electrical protection resistance. This is indicated by the VDE test mark of the association for electrical engineering, electronics and information technology. Insulated screwdrivers are therefore often referred to as VDE screwdrivers.

Screw drivers are differentiated based on the blade tip (drives) and the associated screw heads (drives). The most well-known include:

Insulated (VDE) pliers

Pliers are another tool that craftsmen have had for a long time. Their versatility allows them to be used for a variety of tasks that require “torque” such as gripping, turning or cutting. Forceps greatly increase the force required for this type of movement compared to bare hands. Today they are usually made of steel to add extra strength to the grip of the jaws. Like screwdrivers, insulated pliers for electricians often carry a VDE test mark.
Types of insulated pliers
Pliers in different designs are available for various special activities. These include: Needle

nose pliers-These have long, tapered jaws, making them ideal for gripping small objects.
Combination pliers– These are characterized by their multifunctional shape, which combines wire cutting, stripping and gripping in a single tool.
Water Pump Pliers – Also known as adjustable pliers (among other names), these tools feature a moveable lower jaw that allows the jaws’ span to be adjusted to the desired measurement. They are ideal for use with nuts, bolts and fasteners.
wire cutter– These tools are typically used to cut wire, hence they are also known as wire cutters. A variant called the diagonal cutter applies different surfaces to the cut wire.
Grip pliers -These have a locking function that leaves both hands free to work

Pliers are ideal for:

⦁ grass
⦁ rotate
⦁ to cut

Electrical tape

Electrical tape is used to protect wires or other electrically conductive objects from external environmental influences. It is self-adhesive, abrasion-resistant, heat- and moisture-resistant and thus protects the sensitive, conductive core within the electrical cables. There are a number of different materials that electrical tape is made from, including PVC, vinyl, copper foil, and glass cloth. There are different versions, which differ in colour, width, thickness, temperature tolerance, adhesive strength and insulating ability. The colours also make it easy to choose the right type and also allow electricians to colour code the cables they are working with. Black is arguably the most common colour, both for general insulation and to mark the low voltage neutral wire in a circuit.

Hand saws and hacksaws

Hand saws and hacksaws are fine-toothed saws that are primarily intended for cutting through metal. The thin blades are held taut in an adjustable frame between the saw head and the handle. Should the blade break or become blunt, it can be easily replaced at any time.

Cable cutters

Cable cutters should also not be missing in any electrician’s tool kit! These versatile tools feature steel blades that cut through standard wiring with ease. Stronger cable cutters are even able to cleanly cut even thicker cables. They can also be used to quickly strip the insulation before crimping and similar work in no time at all. Different models allow for different types of cuts, from simple multi-purpose tools to those specifically designed for flush cutting or bevel cutting. Insulated Wire Cutters are suitable for use with high voltage power lines, electrical equipment and high electrostatic discharge environments, making them essential for electricians. For ease of use, you should look for models with an ergonomic handle and use cable cutters that are really suitable for the hardness of the material to be processed. The cutting capacity, which ranges from 0.4 mm to 600 mm, provides information about this.


Wrenches will almost certainly be an essential addition to your electrician’s tool kit, especially if you regularly need to loosen or tighten nuts, bolts or similar fasteners.
The variety of sizes of nuts and bolts requires a similar variety of wrenches to ensure a truly tight fit between the head applying the torque and the fixture in question.

Common wrench types include:

Adjustable wrenches -As the name suggests, these feature a movable jaw that can be adjusted to accommodate different sized bolts or nuts. The English man is the best-known form of the adjustable key. Open End Wrenches -These wrenches have different sized crescent-shaped clamps on each end and are useful in tight spaces

Voltage tester

Absolutely indispensable: With the help of voltage testers or “multimeters” you can check whether current is flowing through a line. They are primarily used for safety purposes when checking cables, switches, junction boxes or similar devices; if the voltage is present, the diode lights up. In this case, electricians must switch off the power before starting work, otherwise, there is a risk of death.

Most models with a voltage display have additional circuitry and overvoltage protection for increased safety.

Safety knives

Safety knives aren’t just a professional speciality tool – in fact, most of us are familiar with them. But whether carpet knife, wallpaper knife or cardboard cutter: the principle always remains the same. For safety reasons, the knife blade is shielded and is only pushed out when the tool is actually needed. This in turn minimizes accidents and injuries. Some models have spring-loaded sliders that automatically retract the blade after use.

Like all tools, safety knives come in different shapes and sizes for use in specific situations. Professional safety knives for electricians usually have aluminium, plastic or steel handles, the blade itself is made of stainless steel, carbon or tool steel for the best possible cut.In addition, a blunt or broken blade can be replaced at any time.

Allen key

Every now and then one hears or reads the short form “Imbus”. What is the correct spelling now? The correct answer is: “Allen”. This is the abbreviation for the brand name Allen screw Bauer and Schaurte. Allen keys are made of steel or nickel, sometimes bronze or copper alloys. There are four main types: straight hexes, L-shaped foldable hexes, and T-handles. Straight Allen keys are inserted into screwdrivers to adapt them for hex fasteners.
L-shaped keys have identical heads at two ends of different lengths. The asymmetrical shape results in a different leverage effect depending on the end use: If the shorter end is used for turning, less force is required. The longer end, in turn, enables use in hard-to-reach angles and corners.
Last but not least, the handles of the T-handle variant are more ergonomic, so you can grip them tighter.

Claw Hammers

Claw Hammers have a head that serves two functions: one end is for hammering nails, and the other has a double steel claw for pulling nails out. For electricians, claw hammers are quite handy tools, allowing them access to tightly locked areas, such as panelled fuse boxes.


Chisels are another tool that has been used since ancient times – who would have thought that even electricians could use them! Whether wood, stone, brick, concrete or other hard materials, a chisel breaks through all of these with ease. On these, it gives access to electrical wires or can be used to chisel channels for wiring in walls. Modern chisels are made from different steel alloys.

Available sizes include:

⦁ 5mm
⦁ 10mm
⦁ 16mm
⦁ 18mm
⦁ 20mm
⦁ 50mm


Flashlights are another household staple that is essential for electricians and other professionals. They come in many different styles, with professionals preferring smaller flashlights that use LEDs instead of traditional incandescent bulbs – after all, they’re lighter and easier to carry, so you always have a light with you. Because electricians often have to work in darkened areas, such as in a building where the lights are out or the power is off, flashlights are still essential. Helmet-mounted or headband-mounted headlamps may be necessary when electrical contractors need two free hands for precision work.

Frequently Asked Questions

What tools do master electricians and trainees need?

There is no general answer to this question because it depends on the type of activity. However, the basic equipment of every electrician certainly includes:

⦁ Appropriate insulating tape
⦁ Insulated screwdriver
⦁ Insulated pliers
⦁ wirecutter
⦁ voltage tester

Which are the best cordless screwdrivers?

Electricians should always use screwdrivers that are also fully insulated to avoid the risk of electric shock. Look for tools that meet the quality standards of the German Association for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies (VDE).
In principle, this also applies to all other tools used by electricians.

How much do electrician tools cost?

RS Components are an international distributor of quality equipment and can offer expert advice on all your toolbox needs and even custom tool kits and bags if required. Of course, it’s not necessary to buy a complete kit – your equipment can also grow over time and you can buy additional tools whenever your finances allow and the job requires it.

Electricity Effects on people

The human body conducts electricity. Very small currents are harmless and are e.g. B. used in medicine. However, larger currents can lead to injuries and even death. Therefore, humans must fundamentally protect themselves from the dangerous effects of electric current.

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Current in Human body

The human body conducts electricity. Body fluids are responsible for their conductivity. In contrast to metals, the electrical current is conducted by ions. In contrast to metals (first-order conductors ), such conductors are called second-order conductors.

Very small currents in the range from microamps to one milliampere are harmless and are used eg B. used in medicine (eg stimulation current diagnostics and therapy).

Larger electrical currents flowing through the body can injure or even kill people.
The effect of electric current on humans depends

  • the strength of the current through the body,
  • the type of current (direct current, alternating current, high-frequency alternating current),
  • from the current path through the body,
  • on the duration of the action of the electric current.
Danger of Electricity

Caution! High voltage. There is a danger to life.

The most important current paths through the human body are shown in Figure 2. Direct currents and alternating currents that flow over the area of ​​the heart (eg from hand to hand) are particularly dangerous. They can influence the heart’s activity, lead to cardiac arrest and thus death. Larger currents can also cause burns.

Investigations have shown that the human body resistance in the current paths shown in Figure 2 is around 1500 ohms on average. In addition, there is a contact resistance of around 1000 ohms between the skin and the voltage source with which one comes into contact. The average total resistance is thus around 2500 ohms.
If the voltage is 25 V, a current of


I= 25  V / 2 500 Ω

I= 0.01  A = 10  mA

Such a current of 10 mA is not yet life-threatening, but you can usually feel its effects clearly.

Investigations on test persons with alternating current of 50 Hz showed the following typical effects of electrical currents for the hand-hand current path :

2 mAElectricity just noticeable in the palms of the hands
3 mAslight tingling sensation in the palms of the hands, as if the hands were asleep
4.5 mASlight vibration of the hands, pressure in the wrists
8 mAHands become stiff and cramped
15 mAGeneral spasm of the arm muscles reaching up to the armpits is
just possible to let go
16.5 mAComplete cramping of the hands and arms, it is no longer possible to let go, severe pain occurs.
over 40 mAand exposure times of more than 2 seconds:
ventricular fibrillation, death likely with increasing perfusion time.

current transformers

Worth knowing – current transformers

Current transformers are special transformers for the proportional conversion of large currents to directly measurable values. A current transformer achieves galvanic separation between the primary circuit and the measuring circuit and, in the event of a malfunction, provides a protective effect for the downstream measuring devices. Current transformers are mainly used where currents cannot be measured directly
A current transformer converts a high primary current into an electrical signal that is easy to process. Such a current transformer emits a secondary current of milliamps up to a few amps (usually 1A or 5A) as an output signal. The secondary current is essentially proportional to the primary current.
There are different versions of current transformers for all voltage levels for use in the power grid. These have different characteristics depending on the application:

⦁ For measuring purposes, to generate a current that is reduced as proportionally as possible within the measuring range for energy meters, current measuring devices and universal measuring devices. Such converters protect themselves and the connected measuring devices from overcurrent by going into saturation.
⦁ for protection purposes, for the transmission of a reduced current to protection relays, control and regulating devices. Such converters deliver an output signal that is dependent on the primary current even with a high overcurrent.

Connect the current transformer correctly

The connections of the primary winding are marked with the capital letters “K” and “L” or “P1” and “P2”. The polarity has to be done in such a way that the “energy flow” flows from K to L or from P1 to P2. The connections of the secondary winding are with the lower case letters “k” and “l” or “s1” and “s2”. The polarity has to be done in such a way that the “energy flow direction” runs from K to L.
If the connections S1 and S2 are interchanged, this will lead to incorrect measurement results.

The correct determination of the power of a current transformer:

When determining the power of the current transformer, the type of connected measuring devices and the length and cross-section of the power must be taken into account. The power required by the current transformer results from the power requirements of the measuring devices and the cable.
A current transformer with a VA output that is too low, overloads, cannot maintain the class accuracy and the measurement error increases.

In the example given, you have a power requirement of approx. 3.8 VA. This is made up of the internal consumption of the lines, here eg 3VA and the internal consumption of the ammeter of 0.8VA. In order to maintain the class accuracy, the internal consumption of the measuring devices/lines should be in the range of 25 to 100% of the converter power. With the rated power of the selected current transformer, we are in this range with 5VA.

A brief overview of the power consumption of Cu power cables:


Avoid open operation of the current transformer

A current transformer operated openly on the secondary side induces very high voltage values ​​on the secondary side. This voltage level can reach values ​​of up to a few kilovolts and thus represents a great danger for people and the system.
Therefore, the secondary circuit should be opened under no circumstances as long as the current is flowing in the primary circuit. The open operation must be avoided and the converters must be short-circuited at the secondary terminals when connecting/exchanging measuring devices.

Accuracy classes

Current transformers are divided into classes according to their accuracy. Standard accuracy classes are 0.1; 0.2; 0.5; 1; 3; 5; 0.1 S; 0.2 S; 0.5 S, as well as the extensions ext150 and ext 200 in classes 0.1; 02; 0.5 and 1. The class symbol corresponds to an error curve with regard to current and angle errors.

Rated current (Ipn, Isn)

The rated current is the value of the primary and secondary current indicated on the rating plate (primary rated current, secondary rated current) for which the current transformer is rated. Standardized rated currents are (except in classes 0.2S and 0.5S) 10 – 12.5 – 15 – 20 – 25 – 30 – 40 – 50 – 60 – 75A, as well as their decimal multiples and parts thereof. Standardized secondary currents are 1 and 5A, preferably 5A.
Standardized rated currents for classes 0.2S and 0.5S are 25 – 50 – 100A and their decimal multiples as well as secondary (only) 5A.

Rated power Sn

The rated power of the current transformer is the product of the rated burden and the square of the secondary rated current and is specified in VA. Standardized values ​​are 2.5 – 5 – 10 – 15 – 30 VA. Values ​​above 30 VA may also be selected depending on the application. The rated power describes the capacity of a current transformer to “drive” the secondary current within the error limits through a load.

Types of Transformers

Straight-through or window-type current transformers

The conductor to be measured (busbar or cable) is passed through the opening of the current transformer and forms the primary circuit of the straight-through transformer. Straight-through converters are mainly used for mounting on busbars. A straight-through transformer or plug-in current transformer is the most common type of current transformer. These have the disadvantage that the primary conductor has to be interrupted during installation. This is why these current transformers are mainly used when setting up new systems. 
In the case of small currents, the plug-in current transformer can be used as a thread-through current transformer for smaller currents for reasons of cost. The primary line is passed through the current transformer several times. The nominal primary current to be measured is reduced accordingly.

Folding transformers (divisible current transformers)

If current transformers have to be retrofitted, conversion current transformers are often used. With these converters, the converter cores can be opened during installation and thus mounted around the bus bars. This enables assembly without interrupting the primary conductor.  

Winding current transformer

Winding current transformers or winding transformers have a primary winding for smaller currents of 1 to 40 A.

Protection converter

While measuring transformers should go into saturation as quickly as possible above their use current range (expressed by the overcurrent factor FS) in order to avoid an increase in the secondary current in the event of a fault (eg short circuit) and thereby protect the connected Devices, protection transformers are required to be as far outside as possible lying saturation.
Protection converters are used for system protection in connection with the corresponding switching devices. Standard accuracy classes for protection transformers are 5P and 10P. “P” stands for “Protection”. The nominal overcurrent factor (in%) is placed after the protection class designation. For example, 10P5 means that with five times the nominal current, the negative secondary-side deviation from the corresponding ratio (linear) to the expected value is a maximum of 10%.

Current transformer – measuring transducer

technology The advantages of the 4… 20 mA current signal are increasingly recognized and appreciated. With this signal, a base current of 4 mA is the zero value and the 20 mA signal is the 100% value. In addition to the general advantages of the current signal, a current of less than 4 mA can be used as an error signal.
The particular advantages of the 4 … 20 mA signal are always evident when the transmitter is a device that works on the  2-wire principle.
The 4 … 20 mA signal, which is also called the current loop, allows the power supply and signal evaluation to be carried out with only 2 wires. The transmitter is constructed using a special circuit technology in which the 4 mA base current is used to supply the converter.
With these transducers, the auxiliary power for the internal components of the device, such as the transducer amplifier, in particular, is drawn from the signal current.

Main features of WinProladder


General features

1. It adopts the Windows operating system and is designed in accordance with the operating habits of the Windows environment. It is easy to learn and use. Both beginners and experienced users can operate in an extremely efficient manner.

2. Using the concept of the project, visually present the development content of the program in a hierarchical manner, so that the related work content is clear at a glance. Whether it is program development or maintenance, it can be carried out in an extremely intuitive way.

3. Provide well-designed keyboard and mouse operation methods according to the difference between the job site and the office operating environment. The editing and testing of the program can be completed in an extremely efficient manner regardless of the operating environment.

4. Diversified connection methods, providing direct connection, modem connection, and Internet connection, etc., and different connection settings (such as transmission rate, telephone number, URL IP, etc.) can be named and stored for the next operation At that time, you only need to select from the pre-stored connection settings to be connected.

Program Editing in WinProladder

1. Provide an online program editing function, which can be executed immediately after editing without re-downloading the program, which can greatly shorten the development and modification time of the program.

2. Provide a multi-window ladder program screen, which can present different sections of the program at the same time and compare, copy and edit.

3. Provide a flexible ladder program editing function to perform high-efficiency operations such as inserting, copying, pasting, and deleting program networks to speed up program input.

4. Provide program unit input function-the user can divide the entire development work into several program units according to different functions or other classification methods and can perform independent input annotations and tests, which is important for the development of the program and the follow-up Maintenance work is of great help.

5. Provide an independent mnemonic code program display window, which can display the equivalent mnemonic code program of the ladder network where the cursor position in the ladder program window is located in real-time in WinProladder.

6. Diversified program search functions, which can search for components and registers and can set filter conditions such as component types, search ranges, and display the search results in a list. If you click directly on the search result with the mouse, the corresponding program part can be directly called and displayed in the ladder program window.

7. Provide program grammar checking function. The execution of this function can be proposed by the user or the system will automatically execute when the user issues a running command. After execution, a grammar check report window will be generated, and each error will be listed in a list. If you directly click the mouse on the error item, the program corresponding to the error will be directly called out and the cursor will be pointed at the wrong position. It is very helpful for wrong judgment and correction.

Program Test

1. Provides a multi-page status test page window. The user can customize the components and register data to be displayed on each page, and can individually select the format of the data display. The status monitoring page settings will be stored in the project file. During the second operation, it can be called directly to facilitate the monitoring and setting of the status, and the switch component can be disabled, enabled or forced to set and set the register value through the status test page during execution. To get physical and online training of all Electrical Engineering courses visit our website.

2. Multi-window WinProladder program high-brightness display screen, in addition to the closed state of each switch component is directly displayed on the component in red, the current value of the register in each application command is also directly displayed in the window together. This is very useful for program testing. Great help. In the window, you can also directly click on the switch component and disable, enable or force it to be set. The suppressed contacts and coils are displayed differently from normal components to help grasp the status of the components.

program annotation and printing

1. Provide different levels of annotation functions such as components, registers, networks, program units, and programs. All comments except the last can be displayed in the ladder program window. This is a great interpretation of how the ladder program works help.

2. In addition to the input of the software, the annotations of the components and registers can also be created by the user’s customary text editing software and then read into the software by import, or export Convert the components and buffer comments in the project into text files for intercommunication with other application software such as Excel.

3. Provide the following report (report) file printing function

Ladder program printing:

You can select the printing range and annotation items to output the WinProladder program from the printer.

Use component cross report:

List all the components used in the program and the location of the application instructions in the program.

Features of the DC generator

In all types of generators, the field windings, the armature windings and the external load circuit are connected in series, as shown in the figure below.

wound generator series

Therefore, the same current flows through the armature winding, the field winding and the load.
Let, I a = I sc = I large
Here I a = armature current
sc = current field field
large = load current
There are generally three most important characteristics of a DC generator that show the relationship between different quantities, such as series field current or excitation current, generated voltage, terminal voltage and load current.

Magnetic or Open Circuit Characteristic of DC Series Wound Generator

The curve showing the relationship between the no-load voltage and the magnetic field or magnetic or open circular curve is displayed. As they are not charging, the load terminals are open and there will be no field current in the field as the armature, field and load are connected in series and these three make a closed circuit loop. Thus, this curve can be practically achieved to separate the field winding and excite the DC generator from an external source.

Here in the diagram below the AB curve shows the magnetic characteristic of the DC generator. The linearity of the curve will continue until the poles are saturated. After this, there will be no other significant change in the DC generator terminal voltage to increase the field current. Due to the residual magnetism, there will be a small initial tendency along with the reinforcement and therefore the curve started from a point A which is a little above the origin O.

Internal feature of DC series wound generator

the internal characteristic of the curve gives the relationship between the voltage produced in the armature and the load current. This curve is obtained by subtracting the drop due to the diamagnetic effect of the reinforcement reaction from the no-load voltage. Thus, the actual voltage produced (E sol ) will be less than the voltage without load (E 0 ). This is why the curve falls slightly from the typical open circuit curve. Here in the diagram below the OC curve shows the internal characteristic or the total characteristic of the DC generator.

External feature of the DC generator

The external characteristic curve shows the change in the terminal voltage (V) with the load current (I large ). The voltage of the terminal of this generator type was obtained by removing the ohmic drop due to the armature resistance (R a ) and the series field resistance (R sc ) from the actual output voltage (E sol ).
Terminal voltage V = E sol – I (R a + R sc )
The external characteristic curve is below the internal characteristic curve because the value of the terminal voltage is less than the output voltage. Here in the figure, the OD curve shows the external characteristic of the DC generator.

characteristic curves of a direct current generator

It can be observed from the characteristics of the DC generator, that as the load increases (load is increased when the load current increases) the voltage at the machine terminal increases. But once it reaches its maximum value, it begins to decrease due to the excessive demagnetizing effect of the armature reaction. This phenomenon is shown in the figure from the dashed line. The square part of the feature gives approximately constant current regardless of the external load resistance. This is because if the load increases, the field current increases as the field are connected in series with the load. Similarly, if the load increases, the armature current increases as the armature also connect to the load. But due to saturation, there will be no further increase in the magnetic field strength, hence any further increase in the induced voltage. But due to the increased armature current, the effect of the armature reaction increases significantly, which causes a significant drop in the load voltage. If the load voltage drops, the load current also decreases proportionally, as the current is proportional to the voltage according to Ohm’s law. Thus, by increasing the load, it tends to increase the load current, but by decreasing the load voltage, it tends to decrease the load current. Due to these two simultaneous results, there will be no significant change in the load current in a dashed portion of the outside Thus, increasing the load, tends to increase the load current, but decreasing the load voltage, it tends to decrease the load current. Due to these two simultaneous results, there will be no significant change in the load current in a dashed portion of the outside Thus, increasing the load, tends to increase the load current, but decreasing the load voltage, it tends to decrease the load current. Due to these two simultaneous results, there will be no significant change in the load current in a dashed portion of the outside characteristics of the DC generator. This is why the DC series generator is called a constant DC current generator.

What is Electrical Engineering | Electrical Engineering Institute

Have you heard about what electrical engineering is? Would you like to know it in depth? Many people, when choosing what to study, take the path of Engineering. However, there are so many and so numerous that, on many occasions, it is quite complicated. For this reason, at Euroinnova Formación, we want to give you a hand in making this decision. And we want you to know what Electrical Engineering is for it! In this way, you will be able to understand what each of the engineering firms means and which one best suits what you are looking for.

Electrical Engineering is not one of the best known or popular. However, it can become as important in society as Industrial Engineering, Chemical Engineering or Telecommunications Engineering. Each of the engineering firms makes a vital contribution to our society. That is why, whichever one you choose, the chances are that you will find in it an enriching and rewarding job. Do you want us to begin to know what Electrical Engineering is? Go for it!

Electrical Engineering Institute
Electrical Engineering Institute

The concept of Electrical Engineering

Electrical Engineering Institute is the field of Engineering that deals with the application of electricity, electromagnetism, and electronics. Therefore, it is a discipline with a long historical antecedent, and currently in great demand together with Systems Engineering. In other words, we can say that Electrical Engineering is the integration of different fields, physical and mathematical, for the creation and design of systems and equipment for the transmission, distribution and generation of electrical energy.

However, far from exhausting the question of what Engineering is, as it is such a broad field of study, it requires delving into the different nuances and qualities of an Electrical Engineer. To achieve an exact and precise definition of the term, it must be clarified that, depending on the place and context used, Electrical Engineering may not include Electronic Engineering in its domains.

Thus, when a distinction is made between the two concepts, two levels are established. On the one hand, Electrical Engineering would focus on the branch that addresses problems in large-scale and power systems, such as energy control systems. On the other hand, Electronic Engineering refers to low power systems, such as telecommunications systems.


Do you want to train in Electrical Engineering? Would you like to delve into the question of what Engineering is and get a position in the sector? Then this Master in Electrical Engineering is perfect for you! With it, you will be able to specialize in Electrical Engineering, knowing all the bases of this concept and delving into the different scientific branches of which it is composed. If the world of Electrical Engineering catches your attention, we encourage you to take a look at this master’s degree: it has everything you are looking for. Join the online campus of Euroinnova Formación and start living your future from this moment!

What is a short circuit?

In electricity, the notion of short-circuit comes up very often. Usually associated with danger, shorting is something you want to avoid. But by the way, do you know what a short circuit is? What happens from an electrical point of view during a short circuit? Find out the answers to these questions in our short circuit guide.

short circuits
short circuits

The definition of a short circuit

Principle of short circuit
In electricity, a basic circuit is represented by a generator (battery, battery, etc.) which supplies current to devices (dipoles) such as a lamp, a capacitor etc. When the circuit is closed, the current leaves from its source and passes through the equipment before returning to the generator.
In the event of a short circuit, the current takes a shortcut. Instead of passing through the circuit equipment, it returns directly to its source. In other words, the current becomes trapped in a loop that causes the intensity to increase and heat up. A short circuit can be accidentally caused when a connecting wire strikes its insulating plastic sheath. It can also be caused by inserting a jumper wire between the terminals of the generator or dipole.
An example of an electrical short circuit
Take the example of an electrical circuit comprising a generator and three bulbs connected in series. In normal times, the current leaves the generator and successively feeds the three bulbs. If one of the bulbs is short-circuited, the current will no longer flow through this dipole. As a result, the current will only feed two lamps. Concretely, this means that the short-circuited lamp will not light up. On the other hand, because of the short circuit, the other two lamps will shine brighter and run the risk of burning out. To learn more details about short circuits click here

The different types of short circuits

There are different types of short circuits. They can be classified according to different parameters. For example, considering the duration, we will speak of a self-extinguishing, fugitive, semi-permanent or permanent short-circuit.
The cause of the short circuit can also vary. In the event of a broken conductor, we will speak of a mechanical short-circuit. This is the case, for example, if you forget a tool that connects the terminals of your car battery. The short circuit can also come from an electrical surge after a lightning strike, for example. Finally, humidity, ageing or degradation of the insulation can also be responsible for a short circuit.
Finally, the nature of the connection makes it possible to qualify a short-circuit. For example, a short-circuit is said to be “free” during direct contact between the two terminals, unlike a so-called “impedance” short-circuit. For a three-phase network, short circuits can be:
Single-phase in the case of one phase with neutral;
Biphase for two phases;
Three-phase for three phases;
Two-phase-earth when two phases are connected with the earth.

The short circuit from the point of view of theory

Another way to understand what a short circuit is is to go back to the fundamentals of electricity from a formula point of view.
Ohm’s law in direct current dictates that the voltage (U) is equal to the product of the resistance (R) and the current (I): U = R * I. The resistance reflects the property of a component to oppose the passage of a current. For example, a bulb has a certain resistance. During a short circuit, the component is bypassed by the current. Nothing (or almost) then opposes the flow of current and the resistance of the circuit tends to zero. Therefore, the intensity increases towards infinity.
The increased intensity causes heat dissipation via the Joule effect. This conforms to the following formula: P = R * I², where P represents the power dissipated by the Joule effect.
In short, a short circuit causes the current to rise sharply, causing the circuit to heat up. This is why short circuit phenomena must be able to be detected early and corrected. Otherwise, you risk damaging your circuit. Adding heat can cause the insulation covering your equipment to melt and burn out. On a larger scale, the short circuit can be responsible for household fires.

How to protect your electrical installation against short circuits?

Considering the dangers of a short circuit, there are different pieces of equipment to protect the electrical installation of a home.

The electric circuit breaker

The circuit breaker is an electromagnetic device that automatically cuts off the current when a short circuit is identified. The circuit breaker can be thermal or differential. Once the problem has been eliminated, the circuit breaker can be reset.
Circuit breakers are widely used in a home. This is how you have a branch circuit breaker installed next to the GFCI on a row in your electrical panel. The role of this circuit breaker is to protect a given circuit against short circuits or overloads. A subscriber circuit breaker is also installed upstream of your electrical panel in the technical shaft of the accommodation. Its role is to provide the interface between the general electrical network and your personal installation. Only the electricity supplier is authorized to operate this circuit breaker.

The basics of electricity

Installation, replacement of electrical circuit breaker
The electric fuse
The electric fuse works on the same principle as a circuit breaker. In the event of a short circuit or an electrical overload, it automatically cuts off the power. The main difference with a circuit breaker is that the fuse cannot be reset. It must therefore be replaced after each use. A fuse is in fact made up of a piece of metal (lead for old fuses) that melts during a short circuit or overload. Once the filament is melted, electricity cannot pass through. Compared to circuit breakers, fuses are cheaper and allow circuit overloads to be detected more quickly.


Grounding outlets, equipment and the circuit is also a means of protection against short circuits. Earthing concretely consists in creating a physical connection with the ground. In the event of a short circuit, the current is therefore automatically diverted to the ground.

Voltage relay: purpose, the principle of operation, device, types

Voltage relay: purpose, the principle of operation, device

Electrical engineering of our day is sensitive to mains voltage surges, so the lack of a fight against them can entail serious consequences for it. And, we will note, attracts all the time. Network providers are slow to upgrade their mossy power lines, substations and transformers, and the quality of the current in the networks is deteriorating every day. If industrial structures – where do they go? – are fighting this scourge by installing protective equipment at the entrance to their enterprises, then the “people’s” networks are often ownerless, and what kind of current jumps in them – in fact, no one knows. That is why, since there is little concern for citizens nowadays, they themselves should take care of themselves, protecting their personal power grids by means of a device called a voltage control relay, or simply a voltage relay. This is a device that will exclude the very possibility of overloads, and thus the breakdowns to which they lead.

What is a voltage monitoring relay? What is its purpose? How does a voltage relay work? What are the principles of its operation, structure and types? We will now give an answer to these questions, which always arise before those who are confronted by the situation with the need to purchase this device.

Voltage relay
Voltage relay

What the voltage relay protects from. Causes of network surges

There are various reasons for power surges. One of them is a break in a power line (for example, due to strong wind), the consequence of which is a real current shock to the equipment, leading to its burnout if it is not protected. Damage to the neutral wire can have the same consequences.

Another cause of power surges is the location of the transformer. With its location too far from the building, the level of current transmission may one-day “collapse”, and, clearly, this does not bode well for your technology.

The inclusion of a powerful device with a high level of energy consumption can also lead to voltage surges in the network. At the moment when this happens, the current in the second phase drops sharply. Devices that are in the first phase may become unusable or simply burn out from this.

All these problems are a real scourge of the power grid, and only a voltage relay can insure you against them.

Why and why do you need a voltage relay? What does a voltage relay do? What is the very principle of operation of a voltage relay? We will discuss this in detail below.

The principle of operation and the device of the voltage relay

The operation of the relay is ensured by the combined action of its two parts – electronic and power. The first monitors the voltage in the network and controls it, and the second, based on the data of the first, adjusts the load.

The heart of the voltage relay is a microprocessor that controls all of its operations. Its use today is considered necessary, since only thanks to it, the voltage regulation through the relay occurs smoothly.

The main criterion for the operation of the voltage relay is the speed of its operation: in order for the relay to effectively protect the equipment it protects, it must be very high. In modern relays, the response speed is determined by the specified settings and is set based on the conditions of use of the device.

The difference between a voltage relay and a stabilizer

The relay does not equalize the voltage, as the voltage regulator does, but simply de-energizes the load if the current parameters have exceeded the established limits of the rating. Therefore, the effectiveness of the relay is absolute: it is the protection of electrical appliances in its present and strict concept.

Scope of use of the relay

This scope is very wide because the voltage relay is used wherever it is necessary to protect electrical appliances from current overloads. Since electrical engineering is ubiquitous today, the accompanying relay can be placed in any room – of course, in compliance with all electrical safety standards.

The voltage relay protects any network, therefore there are single-phase and three-phase. The reasons for power surges are indifferent to him since it fights against any of them radically – by opening the network. The relay is extremely effective for the protection of devices with a large load on the electric motor, as well as devices with high inertia of operation in the transition to various operating modes. A number of electrical installations need voltage with rigid boundary parameters or full-phase – in this case, a voltage relay is also indispensable. In production, it ensures the uninterrupted operation of industrial equipment, in the life of offices and home life – it protects expensive and sensitive equipment from network surges. Variants of specific devices are determined by the place of their application: industrial relays belong to the class of group relays, the load current of which is high, and the installation is carried out only in the switchboard; individual relays, used in offices and homes of citizens and connected between the load and the outlet, can be installed by yourself, and a shield is not always needed for this.

Benefits of voltage relays

  • The voltage relay has a lot of advantages. Reliably protecting electrical engineering from all sorts of surprises, it, moreover, has the widest range of applicability and in this sense belongs to the category of universal electrical devices. Here’s why it is good:
  • The use of a relay eliminates the cost of repairing electrical equipment due to its breakdown from power surges in the network.
  • The temperature range of its operation is from -20 to + 40 ° С, which means that it can be used not only indoors, but also outdoors – of course, in a sealed cabinet.
  • The device is easy to install and does not need to be invited by a specialist – at least in the case of a socket-type relay.
  • Relay models are aesthetic in appearance and do not violate the harmony of the interiors of the premises by their presence.
  • The market offers tremendous opportunities for choosing the optimal relay option, both in terms of performance and price.
  • How to choose a voltage monitoring relay for home and apartment
  • Buying a voltage relay requires adherence to a number of simple rules. They are as follows:
  • Buy the relay from a specialist store, where you will be given a real warranty on it. Be sure to familiarize yourself with it and read the relay instructions.
  • To save money on buying relays, remember that the cheapest relays are socket-type, more expensive relays are extension ones, and the most expensive ones are DIN-rail-mounted. Our relays are cheaper than foreign ones; in addition, the price varies by brand, feature set and design. Buy a relay taking into account this and your real situation, but do not save too much: the mean pays twice.
  • When planning the purchase of a single-phase relay, accurately calculate its power, taking into account the magnitude of the load it protects. For a three-phase relay, such calculations are superfluous, since they all have the same power.
  • The best choice of a relay is a device with a display that shows the current value of the voltage in the network: the display will allow you to monitor this value not only for the relay but also for you.
  • The material of the relay case must be non-flammable – polycarbonate is best suited for its role.
  • Make sure that the relay has a thermal protection function – this will allow it to perform its tasks optimally.
  • Top voltage relay manufacturers
  • The issue of choosing a voltage relay is determined by a number of factors, of which we single out two: the ability to buy a voltage relay of good quality and at a reasonable price (without going beyond the budget segment) – and just buy the best relay, regardless of the contents of your wallet.

If we are talking about the first option, take a closer look at the rating of budget brands. Relays of the ZUBR and ADECS brands occupy the first positions in it by a large margin from the rest. These products will give you a long service life under normal use. Their cost ranges from 390 to 836 UAH, and the breadth of choice within these price ranges is sufficient for you to choose an option for yourself. As for the rating, not constrained by the budget, in 2020 its top was undividedly taken by the ZUBR brand relays: ZUBR D16, ZUBR D25t and ZUBR D32t.

According to the survey of the STROIMDOM construction portal, the places of the best relays in the 2020 rating were distributed as follows: ZUBR relay – 59.84%, Novatek-Electro relay – 10.66%, DigiTOP voltage relay – 8.20%, Adecs relay – 13.11%, Tessla voltage relay – 1.64%, Abb, Hager, Schneider – 5.74%; the share of the rest is insignificant. In our opinion, this picture is very subjective – in it, for example, the indicator of the domestic brand Tessla is underestimated, the reviews of which are good on the network. But we have no reason to doubt that the ZUBR voltage relay is really the best because everyone is writing about it.

It is released in Donetsk. It has a display that shows the dynamics of changes in the mains voltage in real-time. The error of its readings, measured by a high-precision Fluke 87 multimeter, does not exceed 2 V. The range of rated currents for which it is designed is 25, 32, 40, 50 and 63A; at a current rating of 63A, it can withstand 80 A for 10 minutes. The voltage at the upper limit is set in the range of 220 – 280 V, at

the lower limit – in the range of 120 – 210 V. The guarantee given by the manufacturer for this product is impressive – 5 years. Forum visitors write: in reality, it works much longer.

choosing a career as an electrical engineer.

Electrical appliances are proving day by day essential for our daily lives. In the modern world, electronic gadgets penetrate into every aspect of our lives (at home, in the office, at school, etc.) and make our daily tasks simple and easy. From clever inventions such as the microwave, the calculator and the clock, to computers and spaceships.
Electronic gadgets are inextricably linked to our modern way of life. Only calculate the number of employees who could not work if the computers stopped working. A typical example is a mobile phone, which is an integral part of our daily lives. But who are the professionals behind these inventions? Below you can read more about the position of an electrical engineer.

Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering

The object of work of the electrical engineer.

Electrical engineers use the principles of mathematics and physics to design, develop, and evaluate electrical and electronic equipment and systems. They work with a range of technologies, including home appliances, lighting and electrical systems, telecommunications, and satellite systems. As in any profession, here too there is specialization in the fields of electronics, microelectronics, energy, telecommunications, etc.

Career options for an electrical engineer.

Electrical engineers use the principles of mathematics and physics to design, develop, and evaluate electrical and electronic equipment and systems. They work with a range of technologies, including home appliances, lighting and electrical systems, telecommunications, and satellite systems. As in any profession, here too there is specialization in the fields of electronics, microelectronics, energy, telecommunications, etc.
Career options for an electrical engineer.
The field of electromechanics is huge and given the generalized nature of electronics, there are many areas of specialization to choose from, as mentioned above. Among the different options are electricity, lighting, electrical measurements, control, signal processing, automation, machine installation, biomedical technology, nuclear power, microelectronics in the public or private sector. Also, the number of responsibilities is wide: the study of the feasibility of a new project, design of new systems but also their maintenance, participation in fault diagnosis, data analysis, and much more.
Depending on the requirements of the job you are looking for, there is a choice of fast pace or a focus on research and development. More specifically, the consumer electronics industry is changing rapidly and is highly competitive. Companies have to launch new products every six months. On the other hand, in the field of medicine or in the field of defense systems, security is the most important factor and in this part long-term product development cycles are required, which emerge as a result of thorough research. It is worth noting that opportunities for professional development are offered in abundance: there is a possibility to develop as a chief technical consultant or as an independent contractor.
In addition, as a candidate who wants to work as an electrical engineer, it is good to know that the profession aims to improve systems, with the ultimate goal of improving living standards. Smartphones, for example, have revolutionized communication, electronic systems in medical equipment have made it possible to monitor patient’s progress more effectively, and, finally, electronic systems in the field of defense have ensured the integrity of the states that treat them.
A degree in electrical engineering opens up a variety of professional paths. Given the rapid development of the technology sector, graduates have the opportunity to work in any country they wish and choose a career in various fields, such as industry, information technology, or sales.

The profession of sales engineer.

A different career choice of an electrical engineer is the sale of scientific and technological products or services. To achieve the highest degree of efficiency, a sales engineer must have extensive knowledge of product functions and a full understanding of their effectiveness. Below you can read what is good to know if you choose to look for a job as a sales engineer.
Sales engineers usually prepare and give technical quotes, which explain the products or services offered. Advise customers and engineers, assess needs, and understand customer requirements. They help customers solve problems during the installation of new equipment. They suggest improved materials or machinery, indicating how the changes will reduce costs or increase production. Finally, they help in the research and search of new products.
Many of the sales mechanics’ tasks are similar to those of other salespeople. They need to stimulate the customer’s interest in buying their products or services, negotiating a price, and completing the sale. To do this, sales engineers provide technical – specialized presentations that explain the technical aspects of the product and how that product will solve a specific customer problem. Some sales engineers work with salespeople who focus on marketing and selling the product, which allows the sales engineer to focus on the technical aspects of the job.
Sales engineers should combine their scientific-technical training with their entrepreneurship. This means that they need to be ambitious, extroverted, enthusiastic and of course optimistic.
Are you interested in finding a job as an Engineer? Start your search by clicking here.

Professional retraining for the course “Electricity and Electrical engineering

The BES training centre offers clients to master the professional retraining program in electric power and electrical engineering. As a result of your studies, you will receive a state diploma. The document gives the right to conduct professional activities. The acquired amount of knowledge will allow you to successfully perform professional tasks. Specialists with secondary or higher education need to improve their working skills, constantly modernize their knowledge and skills. The company “Burraq Engineering Solutions” is able to help solve the problem of professional retraining of employees on the basis of electricity and electrical engineering.

Electricity and Electrical Engineering

Features of training

The course is aimed at developing students’ professional knowledge and competencies that allow them to quickly respond to emerging problems and solve them. The course program includes the following sections:

  • Energy management;
  • Economic and legal foundations of the field of activity;
  • Repair, installation, maintenance of equipment;
  • Calculation of power and bandwidth;
  • Use of modern technologies;
  • Planning and organization.

BES uses the distance learning principle. To master the program, the listener must have the Internet. The person will be given access to the resource on which the necessary materials are collected. Verification work is also handed over online.

Issuance of a diploma

If you have successfully passed the test, you will be provided with a document of the established sample. It operates throughout the territory of the Pakistan Engineering Council. We send the document by mail or send by courier delivery. The term of validity of the diploma is not limited.

Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering

What professional training gives

Unlike advanced training, professional retraining of employees allows them to master a new profession, acquire additional competencies in the Electric Power and Electrical Engineering program in Pakistan, and skills for solving work problems. Thanks to the completion of the courses offered by our organization, a person will be able to change the field of his activity. Indeed, at the end of the program, a diploma is issued that confirms the knowledge and skills acquired. Refresher training is necessary for people who strive to achieve the following goals:

The desire for career growth;

Obtaining additional knowledge, abilities, skills;

Mastering a new speciality;

Adaptation to changing social and economic conditions.

After completing the study of programs in any direction, a specialist has the right to conduct activities in the same area, but in a different speciality or in another area where basic specialized education is not required. Our company offers courses that are compiled in accordance with the standards in force in the country, the requirements of qualification guides, federal laws and regulations.

What are the advantages of contacting the company “Burraq Engineering Solutions?”

The team of the BES training centre realizes that modern personnel must meet the requirements, standards and trends adopted in each of the market segments. Therefore, we propose obtaining a professional retraining diploma under the Electric Power and Electrical Engineering program, which allows you to acquire new knowledge and develop existing ones. Clients who have already cooperated with us note a number of advantages:


  • Orientation of programs to professional standards;
  • Lack of subjects not related to the discipline being studied;
  • The most thought-out and comfortable training format;
  • Providing an individual approach to each student.

Thanks to the established diplomas, which are issued upon completion of retraining, most of our clients find new jobs with better working conditions, more prestigious and highly paid ones. Contact you too! Experts of the centre “BES” will do their best to ensure that the quality of retraining, format, cost and timing is 100%.

More information about the cost and conditions of professional retraining under the electricity and Electrical Engineering program can be found by phone or on the website.

How to enrol in professional retraining courses of the training centre

  •  Leave a request
  • Fill out the form on this site. The specialist will contact you within fifteen minutes and explain in detail how to apply.
  • Get a consultation
  • Our experts will clarify the details of your situation
  •  Payment
  • Payment is made according to the details attached to the contract.
  • Education
  • Training is conducted by the teacher according to the schedule agreed with the student at a convenient time for him.
  • You can start working.

Obtaining a retraining diploma for electric power and electrical engineering. The originals of contracts, receipts and acts will be delivered to your address free of charge.

Have questions? We will call you back!

The company provides services in the field of professional retraining in the direction of “Energy”. Theoretical knowledge, supported by practical training, allows our graduates to improve their competencies, to become true masters of their craft. We offer various programs for mastering, which are being developed by practising teachers. All training materials comply with the requirements and standards in force in the country.

After the course of study, you will receive

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