electrical light

Lightning

Lightning is a very bright, brief light phenomenon during a thunderstorm. This is created by brightly shining lines between clouds or clouds and the earth.
Physically, a lightning bolt is a short but very strong electrical current that balances different strong electrical charges between clouds or clouds and the earth. The average current strength is approx. 40,000 A with a lightning bolt diameter of 10 to 20 cm, a length of mostly 2 to 3 km and a duration of less than 1 s. Worldwide, 70 to 100 lightning bolts are registered every second.
A flash is a time short but very strong electrical current that balances the different charges between charged clouds or clouds and the earth.

Electrically charged thunderstorm clouds occur mainly on warm, humid days. Warm but also moist air rises to the top. It cools down in the process. The water vapour in the air turns into water droplets, ice crystals and hailstones. The mechanism of charge separation in the cloud has not yet been clarified in detail. One possible explanation is as follows: Some of the hailstones that have risen fall down again because they are too heavy. The rapid rise of air with water droplets and ice crystals as well as the falling of hailstones cause charge separation due to friction. This creates areas in thunderclouds that are charged differently.

Lightning
Lightning

If the different charges in thunderclouds are large enough, the charge is equalized by lightning. Electrons migrate to the positively charged body.

Lightning strikes especially high, pointed objects, eg high trees, church spires or the tops of roofs.
With the help of a lightning protection system, lightning is caught and safely discharged into the earth. This means that you are relatively safe in buildings. This also applies to cars and other closed vehicles. Do not stand on hills or near trees in open terrain. You are relatively safe when you lie down or squat in a hollow.

Lightning protection system

Lightning is a short but strong electrical current. If thunder strikes a building, the strong electrical currents can cause fires and thus major damage.
In order to protect against such damage caused by thunder strikes, lightning protection systems are installed on buildings in endangered areas. These are constructed in such a way that lightning strikes these systems (lightning rods) and can be discharged safely into the earth. The first lightning rod was built by BENJAMIN FRANKLIN in 1752.
thunder is a short but strong electrical current. If thunder strikes a building, the strong electrical currents can cause fires and thus major damage.
To protect against such damage caused by thunder, are installed in vulnerable areas to buildings Lightning protection systems. These are constructed in such a way that lightning strikes these systems ( lightning rods ) and can be discharged safely into the earth.

The first thunder rod was built by BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.
Electrically charged thunderclouds occur mainly on warm, humid days. If the different charges in thunderclouds are large enough, the charge is equalized by lightning. Electrons migrate to the positively charged body.

Lightning strikes especially high, pointed objects, eg high trees, church spires or the tops of roofs. That is why thunder rods are mainly installed at the highest points in buildings. With the help of a lightning protection system, thunder is caught and safely discharged into the earth.
A lightning protection system has fishing rods and fishing lines that form the highest parts of the house so that lightning strikes there. The electric current of thunder is conducted into the earth via thick iron wires. The grounding is done by plates and copper grids, which are sunk into the groundwater as far as possible.

Thunder

Thunder are very loud sound waves that are generated during a thunderstorm.
During a thunderstorm, the charge is equalized between electrically differently charged clouds or clouds and the earth. Strong electrical currents flow in the process. Due to the hot currents, the air near the lightning bolts expands very quickly for a short time, which leads to a rapid increase in pressure in the air. This increase in pressure spreads as a sound wave and can be heard as thunder.
Thunder are very loud sound waves that are generated during a thunderstorm.
During a thunderstorm, the charge is equalized between electrically differently charged clouds or clouds and the earth. Strong electrical currents flow in the process.
Temperatures are high near the lightning bolts. Since gases expand when the temperature rises, the air near the thunder strikes briefly expands very strongly, which leads to a brief increase in pressure in the air. This rise in pressure is the excitation of a mechanical wave. It spreads as a sound wave and can be heard as thunder.

Since sound and light have different propagation speeds in the air, l and thunder are usually not perceived at the same time. While you can see thunder almost immediately, as light travels at around 300,000 km / s, the sound of thunder takes more time to propagate before it reaches our ears. The speed of propagation of the sound is around 333 m / s. The distance to the thunderstorm can be calculated from the time difference between thunder and thunder. The following rule of thumb applies:

A time difference of 3 seconds between lightning and thunder corresponds to a distance of approx. 1 km.

This rule results from the speed of propagation for sound since the light from the flash can be seen practically immediately due to the high speed of propagation of light.

light bulbs

Light Bulbs

Incandescent lamps are the most widespread electrical light sources that are primarily used to illuminate rooms and workplaces, as well as for vehicle lighting.
In the case of incandescent lamps, the lighting effect of the electric current is used when the current flows through a metallic conductor, the filament.
The first incandescent lamps were developed by the German HEINRICH GOEBEL (1818-1893), the Russian ALEXANDER LODYGIN (1847-1923) and the American inventor THOMAS ALVA EDISON (1847-1931). EDISON in particular succeeded in building the first incandescent lamps that were really useful in everyday life.

Incandescent lamps are the most widespread electrical light sources that are primarily used to illuminate rooms and workplaces, as well as for vehicle lighting. You will eg B. also used for flashlights and traffic lights.
In the case of incandescent lamps, the lighting effect of the electric current is used when the current flows through metallic conductors.

Structure and mode of operation

The most important parts of an incandescent lamp are a filament ( filament ) with a power supply, the base for connection to the power supply via a socket and the glass bulb.
This glass bulb is not only used to protect the glow wire. Inside the light bulbs, there is a gas mixture of argon and nitrogen, which is supposed to prevent the filament from evaporating quickly. The only filament used is tungsten, which has a high melting point of 3,380 ° C and only evaporates slowly even at high temperatures.
If electrical current flows through an incandescent lamp, the filament heats up very quickly to a temperature of around 2,600 ° C. This glowing metal wire emits a bright light. This means that electrical energy is converted into light and heat, and this heat effect is an undesirable but unavoidable phenomenon in normal incandescent lamps.

Historical development

The first incandescent lamps were developed by the German HEINRICH GOEBEL (1818-1893) around 1854, the Russian ALEXANDER LODYGIN (1847-1923) and the American inventor THOMAS ALVA EDISON (1847-1931). Initially, carbon threads made from wood and plant fibres were used, but they were not very durable.
EDISON played a major role in the technical improvement of the incandescent lamp, which introduced the screw base that is still used today and improved the carbon filament lamp so that the first really usable incandescent lamps appeared around 1880.
Decisive advances were made when it was possible to process tungsten wire into incandescent filaments in 1914. A short time later, the gas filling was also introduced. Further progress has been made with the introduction of double helices.

However, all these incandescent lamps had one major flaw: the tungsten in the filament gradually evaporates and turns the glass bulb dark. From 1960 halogen light bulbs (also halogen lamps. The piston wall thus remains clear. The luminous efficacy of halogen lamps is higher than that of conventional incandescent lamps.

Efficiency and service life

Modern incandescent lamps also have a decisive disadvantage: their efficiency is very low at around 5%. So only 5% of the supplied electrical energy is converted into light and the remaining 95% into mostly undesirable heat. Significant advances have been made here with fluorescent lamps (energy-saving lamps), which are about five times as efficient. The average service life of incandescent lamps is around 1,000 operating hours. Then so much tungsten from the filament has evaporated that the filament burns through.

Types of light bulbs

Depending on the intended use, incandescent lamps come in very different designs, with different operating voltages and outputs.

In the household, incandescent lamps with an operating voltage of 230 V and an output of 25 W, 40 W, 60 W, 75 W and 100 W are used to illuminate rooms.

In vehicles with a 12 V electrical system, bulbs with
55 W – 60 W (main headlights), 21 W (brake lights, tail lights) and 5 W (indicators) are used.

For video lights and slide projectors, halogen lamps with operating voltages between 12 V and 230 V and outputs from 50 W to 200 W are usually used.

For flashlights, incandescent lamps with operating voltages between 1.5 V and 6 V are required. The power ranges from 1 W to 5 W.
They are a special design Infrared lamps that do not primarily use the light effect, but the heat effect of the electric current. A lower lighting effect can be achieved by lowering the temperature of the filament.



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