electricity

Tips For Saving Energy at Home

Useful tips & tricks for saving electricity in everyday life

Operating the light switch when leaving the room has been common practice for decades. However, a lot has happened since the invention of the lightbulb and we now depend on 24/7 electricity at home. The domestic power consumption is correspondingly high. It is now clear that whoever saves electricity not only protects the wallet, but also the environment. But what is the best way to save electricity at home? Discover 22 tips for saving energy, with which you can easily organize your everyday life to save electricity!

Due to the high demand, we have updated this article and added the 22nd energy saving tip “Work on the laptop instead of the PC”.

Economical devices without battery

Electrical devices such as toothbrushes, electric razors and telephones use significantly less electricity when connected directly to the mains than devices that run on batteries.
The LED lamp is energy efficiency class A+ with a weighted energy consumption of 3 kWh/1000h
You can find out how high the energy consumption of a device is or how energy-efficient it is by looking at the EU energy label. If you are unsure which device consumes the least power, compare the information on the EU energy label for the battery and main models.

Pay attention to the energy efficiency class for new devices

Regardless of whether it is a dishwasher, washing machine or kettle, the basic rule is: the higher the energy efficiency, the better. Therefore, always include the energy efficiency class when making a purchase decision. In the end, more expensive devices can be worth buying if they consistently consume less energy than cheaper models.
As already mentioned, the EU energy label shows you how energy efficient a device is. Products marked with A+++ and in dark green show very high energy efficiency, while red and D stand for very poor energy efficiency.
A revised EU energy label has been in force since March 2021, which no longer has the plus classes A+, A++ and A+++. It is only categorized from A (very good) to G (very bad).

Plug out

With a power strip, you can pull out several plugs at once
plug

Stand-by mode is more energy-efficient than normal mode, but the devices continue to consume electricity in this mode. The best way to avoid this unnecessary energy requirement is to pull the plug.
By the way, it is not only good for your electricity bill to disconnect the devices from the mains. You also prevent possible causes of fire: If an electrical device has a defect inside and overheats, it can quickly lead to an electrical fire.

Tip: If you find it too annoying to pull the plug or if the socket is in an unfavourable place, you can use a socket strip with a switch. This makes it easy to turn off the power.

Energy-saving refrigerator in the right place

There are devices that consume a lot of electricity and we can’t just unplug them every now and then. The fridge for example. Therefore, before you buy, think about whether you need a freezer compartment and how big the fridge actually needs to be.
Not only with the right refrigerator, but also with the right position, electricity can be saved. Put the refrigerator in the coldest possible place and do not cool it more than necessary. This also applies to chest freezers and freezers: Ideally, place the chest freezer in the basement.
Also, make sure to leave sufficient space on the wall for the cooler of the refrigerator. So that the heat can also dissipate upwards, you should place as little as possible on the refrigerator. Incidentally, the air is a poor conductor of heat, so a full fridge is not only a pretty sight, but it is also better for the electricity bill.
Tip: fridge a break when you go on vacation. Simply switch off and defrost in the meantime.

A fully packed refrigerator is in line with the energy saving plan!
refrigerator

Cooking with gas

A gas stove works with gas and is, therefore – who would have thought it – particularly energy-saving. But it is actually more environmentally friendly than an electric stove and uses about half as much primary energy. This is because the gas generates heat directly, while the electricity first has to be generated from other energy sources.
If you cook with gas, it is estimated that only half the CO 2 is released as with a conventional electric stove. You can continue to use your pots, as no special pots are required for the gas stove. By the way, some chefs are convinced that dishes cooked with gas taste better.

Cooking with a lid

Regardless of whether it is a gas stove or an electric stove, it is well known that heat “rises” upwards. If the pot is not covered, the heat has free flow towards the ceiling. If the pot is covered, the heat generated stays inside. In addition, the food is ready faster!
It is best to use a glass lid, then you can look inside the pot without having to keep lifting the lid. This is because valuable heat is lost every time.

Tip: Make sure you choose a saucepan that suits the size of the hotplate and the number of ingredients. In this way, you do not heat up an unnecessarily large pot and no energy is lost on a stove that is too large.

Kettles & Co. are more energy-efficient than electric cookers
Kettles

You don’t always have to use the stove!

If you have electrical appliances such as coffee machines, kettles and egg cookers in your kitchen, then use them! On average, these appliances consume over a third less electricity than electric cookers.
Only fill the kettle with as much water as you actually need. However, the kettle is rather unsuitable for boiling eggs.
Note: If you are not only worried about your own electricity bill but also about the ecological balance, you should avoid coffee machines with aluminium pads. The production of these pads requires a lot of energy and is harmful to the environment.

Bake without preheating – cook with residual heat

You do not want to generate unnecessary heat that is ultimately not used? Then only preheat your oven if the pre-run is crucial for the success of the food. While pizza or biscuit dough, for example, likes to be really warm right from the start, the oven does not have to be preheated for a casserole.
The residual heat can also be ideally used with electric hobs and ovens. If you only want the dish to simmer or cook a little, you can switch off the hotplate 10 to 15 minutes earlier and the oven 5 to 10 minutes earlier.
The oven is not efficient for small portions. Preferably use the stove. The oven is also like a pot lid: the more often you open the oven door, the more heat is lost and more energy is used.

Defrost the fridge and freezer

The space in the freezer is getting tight because a thick layer of ice has formed? Then it’s high time to defrost! The icing is not only annoying, it also unnecessarily increases power consumption. For efficient operation, the ice should be thawed from a layer of about one centimetre thick.
There is a very simple explanation for the increased power consumption: the ice layer makes it harder for the cold coming from the cooling coils to get inside. The icy cooling coils of the fridge or freezer, therefore, have to cool longer and use more energy overall to create icy conditions and keep your ice cubes in shape.
Tip:
If your fridge doesn’t have an automatic defrost function, you’ll probably have to defrost it yourself. But you can speed up the defrosting process very easily: put a bowl of hot water inside to melt the ice faster. Don’t forget to wipe the inside dry before using the freezer unit again.

Heater down, door closed

If you turn down the heating and think about sitting in front of the sofa in a winter coat and gloves, then we can put your mind at ease. Because heating energy can be saved without drastic measures.
With every degree less, an estimated six per cent of heating energy is saved. It is therefore particularly important to regulate the temperature correctly and set it individually for each room.
While you like it to be cosy and warm in the bathroom at 23 °C, 16 to 18 °C is enough in the bedroom. In living rooms such as the living room and children’s rooms, a guide value of 20 to 22 °C applies. In the kitchen, 18 to 20 °C is optimal and if you like to cook and bake a lot, it will quickly get really warm anyway.
It is also important to ventilate the room vigorously from time to time rather than continuously tilting the windows. Remember to turn off the radiator while you do this.
Note: Be sure to bleed the heater before winter. If a radiator is not properly vented, it consumes a lot of energy.

Lights out

Provide your light switch with a watchful eye - the motion detector!
motion detector

This energy-saving tip is well-known and still effective: Turn off the lights! If nobody is in the room, the light does not have to be on. Just make sure you always think about the light when you leave a room and switch it off if necessary.
This is especially true for parts of the house that are not used that often, such as the basement and garage. If you leave the light on here, the unnecessary power consumption will most likely go unnoticed for several hours. Even in the hallway or on the stairwell, people like to leave the light on for convenience.
Tip: If, for example, you find it particularly difficult to go to the light switch in the stairwell, you can also have your light switched on automatically via a motion detector.

Use LED lamps and energy-saving lamps

Not only the burning time but also the type of light source can make a difference in terms of energy consumption. Energy-saving lamps use around 70 per cent less electricity than a conventional light bulb. While the power consumption and the CO2 emissions during production speak for an energy-saving lamp, it has fallen into disrepute in recent years because of the toxic mercury content.
So if you want to avoid hazardous waste and still want to save energy, LED lamps to offer a good alternative. The slightly higher acquisition costs pay off over time thanks to the energy consumption that is up to 85 per cent lower than that of conventional light bulbs.

Energy-guzzling apps running in the background

You only charged the battery a few hours ago and now it’s empty again? If the battery charge of a smartphone or tablet seems to be visibly dwindling, apps running in the background are usually to blame.
While some apps have a low-power background mode, others constantly “eat” battery power. The Facebook app is commonly known as a power guzzler. In general, apps that frequently send you notifications are potential battery suckers.
Navigation apps are also particularly power-hungry. Therefore, always make sure to deactivate the location function when not in use. The flashlight function should also not be switched on permanently. By the way, your smartphone needs the least battery in flight mode. So it’s best to treat yourself and your intelligent helper to a little radio silence every now and then.
Note: You can usually display how much battery charge is being used by which apps in the battery settings.

If you want to save electricity, you should also save water!

The best way to save on laundry is to wash less overall. Of course, this tip doesn’t help much when the mountains of laundry are piling up at home. But even if a lot of laundries has to be washed, there is potential for savings.
Basically, it is important to buy a washing machine with the highest possible energy efficiency. If you wash a lot, you can save so much energy with a new machine that in the long run, even an older washing machine will be more expensive.
In addition to the energy efficiency of the washing machine, the washing temperature also has a major impact on electricity and water consumption. For example, if you wash at 40 instead of 60 °C, you can save up to half the energy. The economic programs of modern washing machines therefore usually wash at 30 °C. So just switch it down and choose a lower temperature level.
In addition, with today’s washing machines and detergents, no pre-wash is required. Also, make sure that you only wash when the washing machine is actually full.

Leave laundry to dry on a drying rack

Electricity can be saved not only when washing, but also when drying. Although tumble dryers are convenient, they consume a lot of energy. So use the natural dryer on sunny and warm days and let the laundry dry on the clothesline.
Even if the laundry cannot be dried outside, boiler rooms, for example, offer good conditions for drying laundry on the drying rack. The nice thing about the natural drying process is that it doesn’t need any electricity at all.
Note: The more the laundry is spun, the less moisture remains in the textiles and the faster they dry. While a spin cycle with 1000 revolutions is sufficient for the clothesline, 1200 revolutions or more are recommended for the laundry, which then goes into the dryer.

Reduce water consumption

Save electricity by saving water? Exactly! On average, a quarter of water consumption in Germany is hot water. And in order for water to become hot water, energy must be used.
Even small changes can save water in everyday life. For example, make sure you don’t leave the tap running the entire time you’re brushing your teeth. Also, use a toothbrush cup. You can save even more by turning off the faucet in the sink or shower while you lather.
In the kitchen, you can use a large bowl to wash the vegetables in a water-saving way. If you have many plants or a garden, it is best to use collected rainwater for watering. Incidentally, you can also save electricity in the garden by not mowing the lawn too often.
In general, dripping taps are an absolute taboo in a water-saving household!
Note: Make sure that the dishwasher is a water-saving model. The machine should not consume more than 17 litres per run and only be fully loaded or at least operated in the economy program.

Install economy shower head and flow limiter

While showering with the normal showerer is already water-saving compared to a full bath, you can also save water when showering yourself.
Economy showerheads, aerators and flow limiters optimize the water jet so that less water is used while the shower comfort remains the same. The principle behind it is as follows: The water jet is divided at the tap or enriched with air so that the pressure and surface of the water increase and less water are required.
Water consumption can be reduced by up to half without even noticing it in the shower. In addition to energy-saving shower heads, there is another water-saving hero in the bathroom: the energy-saving cistern for the toilet. While a normal flushing process uses 7 to 9 litres of water, an economy button only uses 3 to 5 litres of water.

An instantaneous water heater only heats the water when you actually need it.
instantaneous water heater

Note: Regularly check that the toilet flush is not broken and that water is not running continuously into the toilet. Similar to a dripping faucet, many litres of water end up being channelled unused into the sewage system.

Turn off the hot water tank or replace it with a flow heater

Hot water tanks or electric boilers offer certain advantages in terms of comfort, as they store a certain amount of hot water and have it ready for later use. So it’s just a matter of opening the faucet and running hot water! However, the constant heating of the water consumes a lot of electricity, which is why boilers constantly consume electricity. Boilers should therefore be switched off at night or when nobody is at home.
For those who do not want to constantly switch off the hot water tank to save electricity, instantaneous water heaters offer an alternative. These only consume electricity when hot water is really needed and only for the required amount of water.
However, a bit of patience or courage is required here: a certain lead time is required, which is why cold water comes first before hot water is finally available. Also, make sure that you only set the water temperature that is actually required.
Tip: Alternatively, you can use solar panels to generate heat for hot water and heating. Even during the cold season, the sun’s energy is sufficient to heat up a considerable part of the water.

Forego air conditioning

In hot weather, use the fan rather than the air conditioner
fan

When temperatures are particularly high, there is only one true solution for many: air conditioning. But just as quickly as air conditioning systems provide pleasant cooling when it is hot, they also drive up electricity costs.
If you don’t want to work up a sweat at the sight of the electricity bill, you should opt for conventional alternatives such as fans and the correct ventilation procedure. An open refrigerator in the room is not an energy-saving alternative to air conditioning.
If you don’t want to do without your air conditioning system entirely, you can also exploit the savings potential in operating it. For example, avoid direct sunlight in the room and keep the windows and doors closed. Position the air conditioner as freely as possible so that the cooled air can circulate well in the room and do not set the temperature too cold.

Saving energy with digital helpers

If you want to reduce your electricity consumption, it is helpful to know your own energy consumption. If you know exactly where and how much electricity you use, it is easier for you to take appropriate savings measures.
There are now numerous tools, apps and websites that you can use to display and evaluate your own consumption. So-called “smart meters” also play an important role in saving energy. These electronic electricity meters can be intelligently networked via a communication interface and can transmit energy consumption in a timely manner.

Generate electricity yourself & switch to green electricity

Free & perfect for a green conscience: solar energy!
solar energy

Save electricity or not, even the keenest saver still uses electricity. In the meantime, there are also options for private individuals to reduce the costs for the remaining electricity consumption in the long term.
A particularly popular source of energy is the sun. While solar thermal energy is suitable for heating water, you can generate electricity with solar cells in the form of photovoltaic systems or mini solar systems. Part of the domestic energy requirement can thus be covered by solar energy.
An alternative source of energy is the wind. Since there are numerous templates and regulations associated with modern wind turbines, a mini wind turbine is particularly suitable. Approval is easier than with a giant wind turbine.
If you don’t want to become a private electricity producer and still want to make a contribution to reducing CO 2 emissions, you can switch to a green electricity provider. Switching is easy and often the tariffs for green electricity are even cheaper than those of conventional providers.
Note: If something goes wrong when you switch to green electricity, you still don’t suddenly find yourself in the dark. Your grid operator is generally obliged to continue to supply you with electricity.

Working on a laptop instead of a PC

Anyone who works or surfs a lot on a PC should use a laptop in the future. Because laptops are designed to run on battery power for as long as possible, they use significantly less energy. The power consumption of a PC with comparable use and equipment is usually (at least) twice as high as that of a laptop.
Do you just want to quickly research something on the internet? Then don’t turn on your laptop or even your computer, but use your smartphone. Smartphones and tablets are a lot more energy efficient than laptops.
Whether mobile device, laptop or PC, all devices can also save electricity using the energy-saving mode. This can be found in the control panel or in the system settings and can be adjusted personally. Determine the screen brightness according to your needs, when the device switches off automatically or goes to sleep and other settings.
And as with all other devices, the devices only consume no electricity when they are switched off. Therefore, always make sure to turn off your computer or laptop when not in use.

Conclusion: With small measures to big savings

Even if you don’t live in a straw hut far away from any electricity, there are numerous ways to significantly reduce your own energy consumption. Whether in the bathroom, in the kitchen or in the basement, there is potential for saving energy in every corner.
It’s often the little things like using the right light source or switching off electrical appliances properly that have a positive impact on the electricity bill. Just being informed about “electricity guzzlers” and being aware of them already influences us when dealing with domestic electricity.
It is up to the consumer to decide which measures are ultimately taken. The devices are still used for household support and even if doing without them completely represents the ultimate saving measure, the convenience for the consumer that was originally intended is lost.
Use your devices consciously and still for your enjoyment: If the sun is shining and you can hang the laundry on the clothesline, whistling happily, that’s ideal. If you just want to throw your laundry in the dryer on a cold, rainy day, that’s fine too. Now you know how you can do something for your wallet and your green conscience with simple tricks!


 


 


 


 


 


 

Electrical work

The electrical work indicates how much electrical energy is converted into other forms of energy.
Formula symbol: W
Units: one watt-second (1st W.⋅ s), one joule (1 J)
Electrical work has to be done to move a charged body in an electrical field.
The electrical work indicates how much electrical energy is converted into other forms of energy.
Formula symbol: W
Units: one watt-second (1st W.⋅ s), one joule (1 J)
Electrical work has to be done to move a charged body in an electrical field. The work to move such a body is equal to the product of its charge and the voltage between the starting point and the endpoint:
W.= Q ⋅ U
Another equation is used for calculations in a circuit. The work in the electrical circuit is equal to the product of the electrical power and the time during which the power is expended:
W.= P⋅ t
Both calculation equations can be converted into one another.
In general, if you apply a force F to move a body along the path s, you do work on this body. Two differently charged bodies attract each other. If you want to pull them apart, you have to apply a force to move one of these bodies in the electrical field of the other body. With this shift,

electrical work
electrical work

The electrical work in a plate capacitor

In some cases, the equation for electrical work is particularly easy to derive. This is possible if the force and the displacement path are directed in the same way. In addition, it is necessary that the electric field strength is constant over the entire path and thus the force is also constant. These conditions are very well met within a plate capacitor. The aim is to calculate the W= FD that has to be done to move a charged test specimen between two plates of a plate capacitor, the distance between which is d. Under the conditions mentioned, the following applies to this work:
W.= Fs
The force on a test specimen inside a plate capacitor is the product of its electrical charge and the electrical field strength in the capacitor:
F.= Q ⋅ E
This results in the following for the electrical:
W.= Q ⋅ E⋅ d
The following applies to the electric field strength E between the capacitor plates:
E.=Ud( U voltage between the plates)
If one uses this equation to replace the electric field strength E in the calculation formula for the electric work, the overall result is:
W.= Q ⋅ U
 
The electrical work in a current-carrying conductor
One can imagine a straight piece of a conductor like a plate capacitor with tiny plate surfaces. Since an electrical voltage is applied to a line wire and electrical charges flow in the conductor – that is, they are “shifted” – the voltage source performs electrical work on the charge carriers. This work is necessary, for example, to overcome the line resistance. Since it is not possible to “count” all charge carriers individually in a live conductor, the equation obtained using the plate capacitor is converted for calculations in electrical circuits.
The total charge flowing through a piece of the conductor is the product of the current I and time:
Q = I⋅ t
The following then applies to w=fd
W.= Q ⋅ U= I.⋅ t ⋅ U= P⋅ t
Electrical work is the product of electrical power and time. This equation applies provided that the power converted in the circuit is constant.
Note for calculations of electrical work
As a rule, either the power or voltage and current strength are specified on electrical components. For example, every light bulb is provided with a power rating. If you want to calculate the electrical work of an incandescent lamp, you only have to multiply this power figure by its operating time. A 100 W lamp that has been in operation for 12 hours, therefore, has an electrical work of
W.= P.⋅ t = 100 W ⋅ 12 H = 1200 W ⋅ h = 1.2 kW ⋅ h

performed.

Electricity Effects on people

The human body conducts electricity. Very small currents are harmless and are e.g. B. used in medicine. However, larger currents can lead to injuries and even death. Therefore, humans must fundamentally protect themselves from the dangerous effects of electric current.

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Current in Human body

The human body conducts electricity. Body fluids are responsible for their conductivity. In contrast to metals, the electrical current is conducted by ions. In contrast to metals (first-order conductors ), such conductors are called second-order conductors.

Very small currents in the range from microamps to one milliampere are harmless and are used eg B. used in medicine (eg stimulation current diagnostics and therapy).

Larger electrical currents flowing through the body can injure or even kill people.
The effect of electric current on humans depends

  • the strength of the current through the body,
  • the type of current (direct current, alternating current, high-frequency alternating current),
  • from the current path through the body,
  • on the duration of the action of the electric current.
Danger of Electricity

Caution! High voltage. There is a danger to life.

The most important current paths through the human body are shown in Figure 2. Direct currents and alternating currents that flow over the area of ​​the heart (eg from hand to hand) are particularly dangerous. They can influence the heart’s activity, lead to cardiac arrest and thus death. Larger currents can also cause burns.

Investigations have shown that the human body resistance in the current paths shown in Figure 2 is around 1500 ohms on average. In addition, there is a contact resistance of around 1000 ohms between the skin and the voltage source with which one comes into contact. The average total resistance is thus around 2500 ohms.
If the voltage is 25 V, a current of

I=U/R

I= 25  V / 2 500 Ω

I= 0.01  A = 10  mA

Such a current of 10 mA is not yet life-threatening, but you can usually feel its effects clearly.

Investigations on test persons with alternating current of 50 Hz showed the following typical effects of electrical currents for the hand-hand current path :

2 mAElectricity just noticeable in the palms of the hands
3 mAslight tingling sensation in the palms of the hands, as if the hands were asleep
4.5 mASlight vibration of the hands, pressure in the wrists
8 mAHands become stiff and cramped
15 mAGeneral spasm of the arm muscles reaching up to the armpits is
just possible to let go
16.5 mAComplete cramping of the hands and arms, it is no longer possible to let go, severe pain occurs.
over 40 mAand exposure times of more than 2 seconds:
ventricular fibrillation, death likely with increasing perfusion time.
Table
light bulbs

Light Bulbs

Incandescent lamps are the most widespread electrical light sources that are primarily used to illuminate rooms and workplaces, as well as for vehicle lighting.
In the case of incandescent lamps, the lighting effect of the electric current is used when the current flows through a metallic conductor, the filament.
The first incandescent lamps were developed by the German HEINRICH GOEBEL (1818-1893), the Russian ALEXANDER LODYGIN (1847-1923) and the American inventor THOMAS ALVA EDISON (1847-1931). EDISON in particular succeeded in building the first incandescent lamps that were really useful in everyday life.

Incandescent lamps are the most widespread electrical light sources that are primarily used to illuminate rooms and workplaces, as well as for vehicle lighting. You will eg B. also used for flashlights and traffic lights.
In the case of incandescent lamps, the lighting effect of the electric current is used when the current flows through metallic conductors.

Structure and mode of operation

The most important parts of an incandescent lamp are a filament ( filament ) with a power supply, the base for connection to the power supply via a socket and the glass bulb.
This glass bulb is not only used to protect the glow wire. Inside the light bulbs, there is a gas mixture of argon and nitrogen, which is supposed to prevent the filament from evaporating quickly. The only filament used is tungsten, which has a high melting point of 3,380 ° C and only evaporates slowly even at high temperatures.
If electrical current flows through an incandescent lamp, the filament heats up very quickly to a temperature of around 2,600 ° C. This glowing metal wire emits a bright light. This means that electrical energy is converted into light and heat, and this heat effect is an undesirable but unavoidable phenomenon in normal incandescent lamps.

Historical development

The first incandescent lamps were developed by the German HEINRICH GOEBEL (1818-1893) around 1854, the Russian ALEXANDER LODYGIN (1847-1923) and the American inventor THOMAS ALVA EDISON (1847-1931). Initially, carbon threads made from wood and plant fibres were used, but they were not very durable.
EDISON played a major role in the technical improvement of the incandescent lamp, which introduced the screw base that is still used today and improved the carbon filament lamp so that the first really usable incandescent lamps appeared around 1880.
Decisive advances were made when it was possible to process tungsten wire into incandescent filaments in 1914. A short time later, the gas filling was also introduced. Further progress has been made with the introduction of double helices.

However, all these incandescent lamps had one major flaw: the tungsten in the filament gradually evaporates and turns the glass bulb dark. From 1960 halogen light bulbs (also halogen lamps. The piston wall thus remains clear. The luminous efficacy of halogen lamps is higher than that of conventional incandescent lamps.

Efficiency and service life

Modern incandescent lamps also have a decisive disadvantage: their efficiency is very low at around 5%. So only 5% of the supplied electrical energy is converted into light and the remaining 95% into mostly undesirable heat. Significant advances have been made here with fluorescent lamps (energy-saving lamps), which are about five times as efficient. The average service life of incandescent lamps is around 1,000 operating hours. Then so much tungsten from the filament has evaporated that the filament burns through.

Types of light bulbs

Depending on the intended use, incandescent lamps come in very different designs, with different operating voltages and outputs.

In the household, incandescent lamps with an operating voltage of 230 V and an output of 25 W, 40 W, 60 W, 75 W and 100 W are used to illuminate rooms.

In vehicles with a 12 V electrical system, bulbs with
55 W – 60 W (main headlights), 21 W (brake lights, tail lights) and 5 W (indicators) are used.

For video lights and slide projectors, halogen lamps with operating voltages between 12 V and 230 V and outputs from 50 W to 200 W are usually used.

For flashlights, incandescent lamps with operating voltages between 1.5 V and 6 V are required. The power ranges from 1 W to 5 W.
They are a special design Infrared lamps that do not primarily use the light effect, but the heat effect of the electric current. A lower lighting effect can be achieved by lowering the temperature of the filament.



current transformers

Worth knowing – current transformers

Current transformers are special transformers for the proportional conversion of large currents to directly measurable values. A current transformer achieves galvanic separation between the primary circuit and the measuring circuit and, in the event of a malfunction, provides a protective effect for the downstream measuring devices. Current transformers are mainly used where currents cannot be measured directly
A current transformer converts a high primary current into an electrical signal that is easy to process. Such a current transformer emits a secondary current of milliamps up to a few amps (usually 1A or 5A) as an output signal. The secondary current is essentially proportional to the primary current.
use
There are different versions of current transformers for all voltage levels for use in the power grid. These have different characteristics depending on the application:

⦁ For measuring purposes, to generate a current that is reduced as proportionally as possible within the measuring range for energy meters, current measuring devices and universal measuring devices. Such converters protect themselves and the connected measuring devices from overcurrent by going into saturation.
⦁ for protection purposes, for the transmission of a reduced current to protection relays, control and regulating devices. Such converters deliver an output signal that is dependent on the primary current even with a high overcurrent.

Connect the current transformer correctly

The connections of the primary winding are marked with the capital letters “K” and “L” or “P1” and “P2”. The polarity has to be done in such a way that the “energy flow” flows from K to L or from P1 to P2. The connections of the secondary winding are with the lower case letters “k” and “l” or “s1” and “s2”. The polarity has to be done in such a way that the “energy flow direction” runs from K to L.
If the connections S1 and S2 are interchanged, this will lead to incorrect measurement results.

The correct determination of the power of a current transformer:

When determining the power of the current transformer, the type of connected measuring devices and the length and cross-section of the power must be taken into account. The power required by the current transformer results from the power requirements of the measuring devices and the cable.
A current transformer with a VA output that is too low, overloads, cannot maintain the class accuracy and the measurement error increases.
Example:

In the example given, you have a power requirement of approx. 3.8 VA. This is made up of the internal consumption of the lines, here eg 3VA and the internal consumption of the ammeter of 0.8VA. In order to maintain the class accuracy, the internal consumption of the measuring devices/lines should be in the range of 25 to 100% of the converter power. With the rated power of the selected current transformer, we are in this range with 5VA.

A brief overview of the power consumption of Cu power cables:

 1A 

Avoid open operation of the current transformer

A current transformer operated openly on the secondary side induces very high voltage values ​​on the secondary side. This voltage level can reach values ​​of up to a few kilovolts and thus represents a great danger for people and the system.
Therefore, the secondary circuit should be opened under no circumstances as long as the current is flowing in the primary circuit. The open operation must be avoided and the converters must be short-circuited at the secondary terminals when connecting/exchanging measuring devices.

Accuracy classes

Current transformers are divided into classes according to their accuracy. Standard accuracy classes are 0.1; 0.2; 0.5; 1; 3; 5; 0.1 S; 0.2 S; 0.5 S, as well as the extensions ext150 and ext 200 in classes 0.1; 02; 0.5 and 1. The class symbol corresponds to an error curve with regard to current and angle errors.

Rated current (Ipn, Isn)

The rated current is the value of the primary and secondary current indicated on the rating plate (primary rated current, secondary rated current) for which the current transformer is rated. Standardized rated currents are (except in classes 0.2S and 0.5S) 10 – 12.5 – 15 – 20 – 25 – 30 – 40 – 50 – 60 – 75A, as well as their decimal multiples and parts thereof. Standardized secondary currents are 1 and 5A, preferably 5A.
Standardized rated currents for classes 0.2S and 0.5S are 25 – 50 – 100A and their decimal multiples as well as secondary (only) 5A.

Rated power Sn

The rated power of the current transformer is the product of the rated burden and the square of the secondary rated current and is specified in VA. Standardized values ​​are 2.5 – 5 – 10 – 15 – 30 VA. Values ​​above 30 VA may also be selected depending on the application. The rated power describes the capacity of a current transformer to “drive” the secondary current within the error limits through a load.

Types of Transformers

Straight-through or window-type current transformers

The conductor to be measured (busbar or cable) is passed through the opening of the current transformer and forms the primary circuit of the straight-through transformer. Straight-through converters are mainly used for mounting on busbars. A straight-through transformer or plug-in current transformer is the most common type of current transformer. These have the disadvantage that the primary conductor has to be interrupted during installation. This is why these current transformers are mainly used when setting up new systems. 
In the case of small currents, the plug-in current transformer can be used as a thread-through current transformer for smaller currents for reasons of cost. The primary line is passed through the current transformer several times. The nominal primary current to be measured is reduced accordingly.

Folding transformers (divisible current transformers)

If current transformers have to be retrofitted, conversion current transformers are often used. With these converters, the converter cores can be opened during installation and thus mounted around the bus bars. This enables assembly without interrupting the primary conductor.  

Winding current transformer

Winding current transformers or winding transformers have a primary winding for smaller currents of 1 to 40 A.

Protection converter

While measuring transformers should go into saturation as quickly as possible above their use current range (expressed by the overcurrent factor FS) in order to avoid an increase in the secondary current in the event of a fault (eg short circuit) and thereby protect the connected Devices, protection transformers are required to be as far outside as possible lying saturation.
Protection converters are used for system protection in connection with the corresponding switching devices. Standard accuracy classes for protection transformers are 5P and 10P. “P” stands for “Protection”. The nominal overcurrent factor (in%) is placed after the protection class designation. For example, 10P5 means that with five times the nominal current, the negative secondary-side deviation from the corresponding ratio (linear) to the expected value is a maximum of 10%.

Current transformer – measuring transducer

Two-wire 
technology The advantages of the 4… 20 mA current signal are increasingly recognized and appreciated. With this signal, a base current of 4 mA is the zero value and the 20 mA signal is the 100% value. In addition to the general advantages of the current signal, a current of less than 4 mA can be used as an error signal.
The particular advantages of the 4 … 20 mA signal are always evident when the transmitter is a device that works on the  2-wire principle.
The 4 … 20 mA signal, which is also called the current loop, allows the power supply and signal evaluation to be carried out with only 2 wires. The transmitter is constructed using a special circuit technology in which the 4 mA base current is used to supply the converter.
With these transducers, the auxiliary power for the internal components of the device, such as the transducer amplifier, in particular, is drawn from the signal current.

Main features of WinProladder

WinProladder
WinProladder

General features

1. It adopts the Windows operating system and is designed in accordance with the operating habits of the Windows environment. It is easy to learn and use. Both beginners and experienced users can operate in an extremely efficient manner.

2. Using the concept of the project, visually present the development content of the program in a hierarchical manner, so that the related work content is clear at a glance. Whether it is program development or maintenance, it can be carried out in an extremely intuitive way.

3. Provide well-designed keyboard and mouse operation methods according to the difference between the job site and the office operating environment. The editing and testing of the program can be completed in an extremely efficient manner regardless of the operating environment.

4. Diversified connection methods, providing direct connection, modem connection, and Internet connection, etc., and different connection settings (such as transmission rate, telephone number, URL IP, etc.) can be named and stored for the next operation At that time, you only need to select from the pre-stored connection settings to be connected.

Program Editing in WinProladder

1. Provide an online program editing function, which can be executed immediately after editing without re-downloading the program, which can greatly shorten the development and modification time of the program.

2. Provide a multi-window ladder program screen, which can present different sections of the program at the same time and compare, copy and edit.

3. Provide a flexible ladder program editing function to perform high-efficiency operations such as inserting, copying, pasting, and deleting program networks to speed up program input.

4. Provide program unit input function-the user can divide the entire development work into several program units according to different functions or other classification methods and can perform independent input annotations and tests, which is important for the development of the program and the follow-up Maintenance work is of great help.

5. Provide an independent mnemonic code program display window, which can display the equivalent mnemonic code program of the ladder network where the cursor position in the ladder program window is located in real-time in WinProladder.

6. Diversified program search functions, which can search for components and registers and can set filter conditions such as component types, search ranges, and display the search results in a list. If you click directly on the search result with the mouse, the corresponding program part can be directly called and displayed in the ladder program window.

7. Provide program grammar checking function. The execution of this function can be proposed by the user or the system will automatically execute when the user issues a running command. After execution, a grammar check report window will be generated, and each error will be listed in a list. If you directly click the mouse on the error item, the program corresponding to the error will be directly called out and the cursor will be pointed at the wrong position. It is very helpful for wrong judgment and correction.

Program Test

1. Provides a multi-page status test page window. The user can customize the components and register data to be displayed on each page, and can individually select the format of the data display. The status monitoring page settings will be stored in the project file. During the second operation, it can be called directly to facilitate the monitoring and setting of the status, and the switch component can be disabled, enabled or forced to set and set the register value through the status test page during execution. To get physical and online training of all Electrical Engineering courses visit our website.

2. Multi-window WinProladder program high-brightness display screen, in addition to the closed state of each switch component is directly displayed on the component in red, the current value of the register in each application command is also directly displayed in the window together. This is very useful for program testing. Great help. In the window, you can also directly click on the switch component and disable, enable or force it to be set. The suppressed contacts and coils are displayed differently from normal components to help grasp the status of the components.

program annotation and printing

1. Provide different levels of annotation functions such as components, registers, networks, program units, and programs. All comments except the last can be displayed in the ladder program window. This is a great interpretation of how the ladder program works help.

2. In addition to the input of the software, the annotations of the components and registers can also be created by the user’s customary text editing software and then read into the software by import, or export Convert the components and buffer comments in the project into text files for intercommunication with other application software such as Excel.

3. Provide the following report (report) file printing function

Ladder program printing:

You can select the printing range and annotation items to output the WinProladder program from the printer.

Use component cross report:

List all the components used in the program and the location of the application instructions in the program.

What does a transformer actually do?

The transformer is not a car that turns into a robot. You should still respect him when you meet him. About its key role in our everyday life

Contents:

  • definition
  • species
  • Functions
  • Turns ratio
  • Today’s use
  • Galvanic separation

The transformer: definition and origin

This word is derived from the Latin “transform” and means to transform or transform. It is also affectionately referred to as a “transformer” by fans and users. Synonymous is a transformer. Since its invention by Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs (London) in 1881, the transformer has spread and can now be found all over the world.

What is a transformer?

The transformer is a technical system of energy technology. The component consists of coils, copper wire and core: the multi-wound wires are immediately noticeable; they are a bit reminiscent of coiled sewing thread. In most use cases, the transformer’s job is to increase or decrease electrical voltages. Transformers convert an incoming alternating voltage in a certain ratio (e.g. 20 to 1, that depends on the coil windings) into an outgoing alternating voltage b. So that’s what a transformer does: it transforms AC voltages (not DC voltages). Transformers are hidden in small, free-standing buildings or in the small rooms of large buildings: It is relatively shy and not entirely harmless when it is life. A transformer can give you a huge electric shock if you get too close without warning or precautions. That’s why he wants to keep most people away with the following label:

The transformer only allows selected people to visit. Then it can also be that he can switch off properly and all the tension of everyday life falls away from him.
So that you too can relax and use energy with a clear conscience, there is really green electricity from Pole Star. He lowers your carbon footprint huge and even fits into the budget of the student flatshare. Do not you think? Check your individual tariff right here.

Different transformers.

The transformer is available in a wide variety of sizes, designs and colours. Many electrical devices or electricity consumers in our household have a small transformer, as the required operating voltage often differs from the mains voltage. There are chargers for cameras, smartphones, tablets and laptops in every household – there are transformers in every single one.
The big brother of the device transformer, on the other hand, is used for power distribution in industry and by the Electricity network operators used. It is called a distribution. In its largest form, the transformer lives in the substation. There he is the link between the tension levels of Power grids. It is also called a network transformer.

The capabilities and inner values ​​of the transformer

The main area of ​​application for transformers is to increase or decrease alternating voltages. What enables the transformer to convert voltages? In order to be able to answer this question, we have to dive deeply into the field of electrical engineering. If this is too technical for you, you can skip the following paragraph. 
The principle of operation of the transformer is based on the law of induction. In terms of construction, the transformer usually consists of a ferrite or iron core and electrical conductors that are wrapped around this core several times. It basically has an input side or primary side and an output side or secondary side. The windings are called the primary and secondary coils. There is also a sketch of the transformer for illustrated reflection:

The iron core of the transformer is wrapped in two coils in which current flows (electrical energy source on the primary side: I1). The windings are isolated from each other. The functioning of it is based on the induction law and Ampère’s law.

An alternating voltage applied to the primary side causes an alternating magnetic flux in the iron core of the transformer in accordance with the law of induction. This means that a magnetic field is created that changes its polarity cyclically due to the applied alternating voltage. The changing magnetic flux in turn induces a voltage on the secondary side of it.

What is a turns ratio?

If the number of copper windings on the primary and secondary sides is the same, the voltage on both sides of the capacitors is the same (in the no-load case, ie without load). In this case, the so-called “winding ratio” is equal to one. If the winding ratio is different, the voltage on the secondary side of the transformer changes. It, therefore, transforms the voltage on the input side to a defined voltage level on its output side. This is called stress transformation

Alternating Current and Ampere’s Law.

If an electrical consumer is now connected to the secondary side of the transformer, an alternating current flows in the secondary winding. So electricity is drawn. According to Ampère’s law, this current also causes an alternating current in the primary winding. The amperage, in turn, depends on the turns ratio. One speaks here of a current transformation.

The transformer in today’s energy technology

Transformers are indispensable for the power supply since electrical energy can only be transported economically over long distances using high-voltage lines. As you already know, the public power grid has different voltage levels. Size Power plants work with high voltages, but at home, we work with relatively low voltages. The link between these voltage levels.

The transformer converts the high voltage into low voltage – or vice versa.

A transformer is used to feed electrical energy from a higher voltage power grid into a lower voltage power grid. Since the transformer is a tolerant guy, it also works in the opposite direction. You can also feed generated electricity back into a higher voltage level.
Physically or mathematically, voltages and windings are calculated using the formula: U1: U2 = N1: N2 (voltage ratio for an ideal transformer). U1: voltage in volts at the first coil; U2: voltage in volts at the second coil; N1: number of turns of the first coil; N2: number of turns of the second coil.

Galvanic isolation.

The transformer gets a big plus point for its technical possibility for “galvanic separation” from Circuits. That sounds rather sad, but it isn’t.
Galvanic isolation rather means that two circuits are not connected to one another via an electrical conductor. The energy transfer takes place exclusively by induction in the magnetic field of the transformer core.
This offers every user increased safety, even if they are freed from any knowledge of the dangers of electrical current. If there is a short circuit in the device, the resulting fault current can flow through the human body upon contact with the device. That can be life-threatening. When using a transformer with galvanic isolation, this fault current remains very low and relatively harmless. 

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