IIoT

Industry 4.0 | an overview

Which technology makes the Internet of Things possible for industry

In this guide we give a comprehensive introduction to Industry 4.0 and the Internet of Things (IoT). Take a look with us at past technological developments and the challenges of tomorrow!
Industry 4.0

contents

  • What is the Internet of Things?
  • What separates the IIoT from the IoT?
  • What exactly is the difference between Industry 4.0 and the Internet of Things?
  • What is the Industrial Internet of Things currently being used for?
  • Why switching to Industry 4.0 is worthwhile
  • What challenges does Industry 4.0 face?
  • IIoT networks and protocols
  • IIoT data protocols
  • frequently asked Questions

What is the Internet of Things?

In short, it is the general term for connecting devices, much more than just PCs, smartphones or other telecommunications devices, to the Internet. These are often referred to as “smart devices” or smart devices, such as fitness trackers or voice assistants.
The abbreviation IoT ( Internet of Things ) is also common in German and English. The term has been on everyone’s lips for years and the industrial sector, in particular, has long since discovered it for itself.

What does IIoT mean?

This brings us to the so-called Industrial Internet of Things, which is often equated with Industry 4.0. The IIoT takes the concept of internet-connected devices and extends it to factories, manufacturing and industrial plants to share data quickly from near or far. For example, sensors can collect information and transmit it to the local network via a gateway and from there upload it to a cloud server so that you can access it from anywhere at any time. Incidentally, the direct, automatic control of networked devices is also referred to as a cyber-physical system.

What separates the IIoT from the IoT?

The main difference between IoT and Industry 4.0 lies in the application. While the former is for comfort, health and entertainment, the latter is all about collecting and processing sensor data in real-time to increase efficiency, optimize processes and save costs. It is not for nothing that one also speaks of a fourth industrial revolution.
The Industrial Internet of Things is based on a well-known form of computer-aided control, the distributed control system, which connects several autonomous devices and assigns them functions. These devices are thus able to continue to adjust and optimize the section of the production line they monitor independently, without the risk that a single fault in the system will bring the entire production to a standstill, as is the case with a centrally regulated controller would. The IIoT takes advantage of modern cloud computing to enable data sharing, visualization, and analysis—all in near real-time.
Within a few years, Industry 4.0 has developed into a huge sector. More than 60 per cent of global manufacturers now use IIoT-Tec.

What exactly is the difference between Industry 4.0 and the Internet of Things?

Although the terms Industry 4.0 and Internet of Things are sometimes used interchangeably, they are not synonymous. In fact, the Internet of Things and IIoT are part of Industry 4.0.
Industry 4.0 is generally used to describe the accelerated use of all advanced automation technologies available to industry and intelligent manufacturing today and the resulting benefits. The key components are:

  • Machine-to-Machine Communication (M2M)
  • Implementation of autonomous systems
  • Seamless cloud computing
  • Artificial intelligence and related ‘cognitive’ technologies such as image recognition

The history of the IoT and Industry 4.0

The Internet of Things may seem like a very modern concept but in fact some of the core technologies that make up Industry 4.0 date back to the 1960s. As early as 1968, programmable logic controllers (PLC’s) – essentially early industrial computers – were developed to fine-tune the manufacturing process. From the 1970s, the first industrial process control systems appeared, which gradually supplemented the manual work in the factories.
The Internet of Things as we know it today first came into focus in the following decade. In the early 2000s, the IoT gradually left research institutions such as universities and laboratories to reach the end-user. The development of enabling technologies such as Bluetooth, Near Field Communication (NFC) and 3G cellular networks accelerated the growth of this market. At the beginning of the millennium, cloud computing technologies, in particular, favoured the development of the IIoT.

What exactly does Industry 4.0 mean?

The term “Industry 4.0” first appeared in public at the Hanover Fair in 2011 to describe the use of information technology in production. The neologism was intended to place the impact of modern technologies on automation and data exchange in the wake of earlier industrial revolutions. These are:

  • The development of steam and water-powered manufacturing technology in the second half of the 18th and the first half of the 19th century,
  • The use of electrical energy, especially in connection with assembly line work between about 1870 and the beginning of the First World War,
  • The third, so-called digital revolution, with the creation of modern IT in the second half of the 20th century and the developments already described above.

What is the Industrial Internet of Things currently being used for?

Industry 4.0 can bring a variety of benefits to a wide range of industries and sectors, including:

  • Smart production facilities and buildings
  • Supply chain and inventory optimization
  • data analysis
  • condition monitoring

The IoT has already found its way into various sectors, of which pure production is by far not the only sector that can benefit from Industry 4.0. The energy industry and retail can also participate in the revolution thanks to ever-smaller smart devices and intelligent solutions.

Why switching to Industry 4.0 is worthwhile

Despite the boom, not everyone is aware of the concrete benefits Industry 4.0 is supposed to bring. Therefore, we would like to give some examples below of how the manufacturing industry has benefited from the implementation of IIoT so far:

  • Production line optimization: Industrial IoT sensors enable continuous monitoring of the production line from start to finished product. This allows operators to continuously fine-tune the manufacturing process, saving time and money.
  • Inventory and Supply Chain Management: Manufacturing depends on the delivery of raw materials and components. ⦁ Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID) tags and similar wireless technologies enable real-time tracking of components and shipments from site to site, making inventory and reconciliation monitoring much easier.
  • Packaging assessment: Industrial IoT sensors enable manufacturers to monitor the condition of packaging during transport and storage, and even assess how customers typically interact with it. The data submitted is extremely valuable because it allows for design improvements.
  • Real-time manufacturing data: By transmitting operational data, suppliers can remotely manage the factory units at any time, conveniently.
  • Maintenance data: Smart devices and sensors can issue alerts as soon as an error occurs and maintenance work is required. In the same way, malfunctions or the exceeding of limit values, such as excessive operating temperatures or excessive vibrations, can be reported. In this way, maintenance can be planned in advance, downtime can be minimized and the risk of accidents can be significantly reduced. When combined with health and safety records, such sensor data can contribute even more to safety.
  • Quality Control: Combining IIoT data from various sources, including suppliers, manufacturing processes and end-users, provides a more comprehensive picture that can be used to drive overall improvements from production and delivery processes to optimized user experience.

What challenges does Industry 4.0 face?

Industry 4.0 is basically an interaction of several network technologies. The three main challenges can therefore be summarized as follows:

  • The selection of strong signal networks, both wireless and wired
  • Adoption of standardized protocols, e.g. OPC UA
  • Network security vigilance to ward off any cyber threats

The technological requirements such as procurement of the devices are therefore the least of the problems in the transition, but there is a high demand for uninterrupted connectivity. In addition, an understanding of IT security and data storage when implementing IoT in industrial operations is essential to ensure smooth and efficient implementation.

What are the risks of the industrial Internet of Things?

As with any other digital solution, cyber security is critical for the IIoT, but with the appropriate precautions such as staff training and encryption of data transmissions, these risks can be minimized.
With this in mind, it is important to stay current with the latest technologies and updates. So you can be sure that you are always keeping up with the new developments regarding Industry 4.0 and derive the greatest benefits from them.

IIoT networks and protocols

Like any other information technology, the Industrial IoT uses a variety of protocols (data communication formats) and network types. Therefore, it is important to get clarity about each individual protocol when planning to create an IIoT infrastructure for your production facilities.

IIoT networks: how to choose the right hardware!

Internet-enabled devices each use different technologies for networks. Which of these offers the best solution depends on a number of factors, such as the distances to be bridged, the amount of data to be transmitted, the location and power consumption.
New networks are constantly being added to the list of networks suitable for Industry 4.0 and IoT. We have compiled the currently most important ones for you:

WLAN

Both in private households and in the industrial sector, WLAN is the common radio transmission standard for PCs, smartphones, tablets and more. WLAN networks are integrated into networks via routers, similar to wired Ethernet networks. Most devices use the 802.11 standards defined by the IEEE Association (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), also known as Wi-Fi.

Bluetooth

Bluetooth is a connection standard developed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, an interest group of more than 34,000 companies, and is also widely used in the consumer sector. It is based on ultra-high-frequency radio waves (between 2.402 GHz and 2.480 GHz) with a relatively short range. The advantage is the extremely interference-free radio transmission. It is, therefore, suitable for a number of different applications.

Zigbee

Zigbee is one of the leading protocols for connecting smart devices. This is a low-power network that is widely used, especially in industry. It is related to the Dotdot protocol developed by the same team and uses the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, which has a transmission range of up to 300 meters under ideal conditions. In buildings, it still reaches an impressive 75 to 100 meters. The current version 3.0 offers 128-bit encryption for secure data transmission.

LoRaWAN

LoRaWAN is the abbreviation for Lo ngRange Wide Area Network, an extremely energy-efficient MAC protocol with a transmission range of up to ten kilometres. It offers secure two-way connections over very large networks and can also be applied to digital radio transmission using FSK modulation.

Sigfox

The French telecommunications company Sigfox uses extremely low-power technology for a comprehensive network, similar to the Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN). In this way, small smart devices in continuous operation, such as electricity meters and smart-watches, can exchange data in a particularly efficient manner. The power consumption is only a thousandth of that of other radio technologies

IIoT data protocols

  • MQTT (Message Queue Telemetry Transport) is an open, low-power message protocol used to transfer simple data sets between sensors and applications. It is based on the common network protocol TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).
  • AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol) is an internationally recognized open-source standard for transferring messages between devices.
  • OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture) is an open M2M communication protocol that combines cross-platform shared data exchange in industrial automation with robust system interoperability.

Frequently asked Questions

Can the IIoT replace MES?

MES (Manufacturing Execution System) is an established hardware-based control system for complex manufacturing processes, typically used to ensure efficiency and improve productivity. This is a closed system. It, therefore, does not have the cloud-based analysis and external network functions that are important for Industry 4.0. An extension of the traditional MES with such makes sense, but a complete replacement with IIoT infrastructure is hardly worthwhile for economic reasons alone

What is the advantage of the Industrial Internet of Things for engineers?

The IIoT enables the collection and analysis of a large amount of data that can be collected in several phases of the manufacturing process. In this way, the continuous optimization and improvement of systems can be promoted.

How does the IIoT work?

An IIoT network consists of multiple sensors connected via different wireless protocols to exchange data with the cloud and each other. The basic structure of an IIoT network is as follows:

  • Devices and hardware equipped with sensors, each connected to the local network,
  • The local network itself, which in turn is connected to the Internet and cloud services,
  • Cloud-connected servers that process relevant data such as operating temperatures, mechanical faults and power consumption. Such smaller amounts of data condense over time into big data, which can be analyzed to gain deeper insights into your operations.

What is the difference between Industry 4.0 and Lean Manufacturing?

Lean manufacturing is a production organization method aimed at minimizing waste and maximizing productivity. The principles go back to the 18th century and were formulated in the early 1990s as part of an MIT study of the Japanese automotive industry. Industry 4.0 can support lean manufacturing but is not absolutely necessary for it.

How much does it cost to implement an Industry 4.0 solution?

The costs depend on how large and type of manufacturing processes you want to optimize. Therefore, there is no definitive answer to this question.

Which IoT application scenarios are possible for 5G campus networks

Deutsche Telekom’s 5G campus network could in the future place many scenarios relating to Industry 4.0, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and digitization on a consistent communication platform. The new mobile communications standard also enables wireless technology in security-critical environments.

IoT
IoT

Industry 4.0 and digitization are also seen by more and more companies as an opportunity to bring production back to Europe. With new technologies, favourable personnel costs can be offset at other locations.
But the way in which production is carried out is also changing: “The trend towards smaller batch sizes and flexible product that can be quickly adapted to other orders increases the need for a wireless and secure network in the production facilities,” notes Christian Schilling, Senior Consultant at the management consultancy Detecon International GmbH, a wholly-owned T-Systems subsidiary.

Industry 4.0 requires low latency times

The public mobile network or private WiFi networks are often not sufficient for the requirements in the production environment – latency times and WiFi working on public, non-reserved frequencies often cause problems with data transmission. With the new 5G mobile communications standard, which allows important data to be prioritized, the requirements in the production area, in particular, can be better addressed.
With the 5G campus network, Telekom is presenting an alternative that can be used to integrate intelligent production in a radio network and with a standard (4G or 5G). With 5G campus networks, companies receive private mobile phone coverage with guaranteed, high transmission quality directly at their location. At the same time, public mobile phone coverage will also be improved locally. Campus networks are generally open to all technologies and can already serve as a springboard to 5G in the near future in the context of LTE (in combination with edge computing).

5G added value lies in the combination of different use cases

With the health check from T-Systems, companies can check what a 5G campus network can do for them in concrete terms. “Connectivity is an enabler. We work with the customer to develop concrete use cases that make production more efficient or simpler. We show how an investment pays off,” says Schilling.
This is usually not just based on one scenario, says the consultant: added value usually comes from the interaction of different use cases. A transformation strategy and roadmap will be developed for this purpose. “The Telekom campus network does not come off the peg, it will look different for each company,”

The classic areas of application for 5G include:

smart production

In many cases, 5G makes cabling in production redundant. Even security-critical applications with the lowest latency times can be covered by the standard designed for this purpose. This means that changeovers between orders can be faster and more flexible. Another problem is also solved: integrating the increasing machine-to-machine communication and sensors often poses challenges for existing radio technologies. The data is often collected in advance via a gateway. In the 5G campus network, information can be provided in real-time in conjunction with edge computing. In this way, computer performance can be shifted away from the devices to the edge cloud. If a campus edge cloud is operated, sensitive data does not have to leave the campus: an important security aspect in production.

Augmented and Virtual Reality (AR/VR)

With 5G, large volumes of data can be transmitted securely, even in real-time-critical applications. A prime example of the data hunger and latency requirements of new technologies are augmented and virtual reality. They are becoming increasingly relevant for Industry 4.0, for example in the area of 2. connected workers. Employees are guided through processes using data glasses, and individual steps can be compared by the system for quality management. At the same time, the technology helps to carry out repairs on-site, with an expert providing support via data glasses and video, who may be working remotely with the machine manufacturer.

Remote monitoring and remote control

Another typical Industry 4.0 scenario is the complete networking of production, in which a 3. digital image (digital twin)  is created. Through planning and simulations based on the data that is continuously collected from machines and assets, production can be controlled, optimized and promptly adapted to changes. A 5G campus network can form the connectivity basis for secure data exchange based on uniform standards.

Safety Monitoring

In the area of ​​security and safety, systems with mobile cameras, among other things, ensure continuous monitoring of the production site. This involves the transmission of large amounts of data. In the future, AI technologies related to image recognition can help to automate security tasks. With the help of AI and machine learning, even the smallest deviations and irregularities can be detected. In the future, open spaces outside the factory building can also be monitored with drones.

Smart (inter)logistics

Autonomous transport systems and intelligently reacting vehicles that know the layout of locations and, in the event of a problem, choose alternative routes to continue supplying production with material, are increasingly being used. One challenge here is fleet management, with the control of different systems. Here, too, 5G can score with the extremely low latency times

Storage technology | where automation really pays off

How the right automation strategy in intralogistics can save money and significantly increase efficiency in Storage technology

Storage technology
Storage technology

When building or redesigning logistics systems, the question of the degree and type of automation inevitably arises at the beginning. Because a warehouse that is automated with foresight can be operated much more cost-effectively in the long term and also offers other advantages compared to conventional manual warehouses.
Basically, the type of warehouse is always a compromise between safety and efficiency: In a theoretical world in which every part is always available, warehouses would be unnecessary. Logistics concepts such as Just in Time and Just in Sequence are approaching this ideal, but they also show the limits, as the automotive industry recently had to painfully experience the border closings with the Czech Republic due to Corona: Here arose due to delivery delays Bullwhip effect, which ultimately messed up the supply chains from OEM to 3rd tier supplier.
Such effects can, in their two extremes, lead to a complete overload of the system on the one hand. On the other hand, it can happen that entire shifts have to be sent home due to missing orders. Both situations are sometimes associated with enormous increases in costs.

Intralogistics: How can my warehouse work more cost-effectively?

But smart, automated intralogistics can be a worthwhile alternative. In general, automation always pays off if the number of storage and retrieval is constant and at a high level. This is often the case in the B2B area, since here the flow of goods is more calculable compared to the B2C area. In addition, it must be taken into account that automation costs more money: In addition to the hardware components such as storage and retrieval machines and driverless transport systems, experts estimate that around 40 to 50 per cent on top must be calculated in order to optimally network such a logistics solution and integrate it into the existing IT and infrastructure to involve.

Industry 4.0: Award from ROI-Efeso and the magazine Production

Digital assistance systems, data analytics, artificial intelligence or machine learning are changing the value creation processes in the manufacturing industry at breakneck speed. Companies that manage to successfully integrate these digitization technologies, tools and systems into their value creation processes are among the pacesetters of Industry 4.0. Together with the trade journal PRODUKTION, it has been honouring ROI-Efeso with the Industry 4.0 Award since 2013 – one of the most important benchmarks for digitization projects and Industry 4.0 best cases. You can find out more about the award here.
But in addition to the classic automation solutions mentioned here, systems such as Autostore are now also available. With the help of picking robots, storage space can be saved in addition to full automation.
Of course, it should not be forgotten that these systems are also connected to the Internet and must therefore be secured against unauthorized access from outside.

If automation solutions are implemented across the group, synergies and thus significant cost savings can be achieved through standardized interfaces. In this way, a not inconsiderable savings potential can be created with a higher-level solution.

Tip: Is a combination solution worth it?

The big advantage is, of course, that with an optimally coordinated system, all costs are quickly amortized. Therefore, hybrid solutions are also recommended for systems with certain fluctuations, ie an automated area for the base load and a manual area for peak loads.

What influence does the load carrier used have

Another point that can be of crucial importance when automating a warehouse is the use of standardized load carriers: the fewer different boxes and pallets that have to be stored and retrieved, the easier it is to implement automation. It should be noted that many components in logistics, from storage and retrieval machines to driverless transport systems to conveyor and storage technology, are mostly designed for standardized transport containers. This makes planning a new system much easier and the individual components are cheaper to obtain and combine.
Such standardized systems can then be used in the automotive industry as well as in e-commerce or in the pharmaceutical industry. Of course, automation solutions are also feasible for individual load carriers. Examples of this can be found in furniture production or metal production. There, however, more engineering effort and higher costs can be assumed. But even this additional effort can ultimately pay off.

Returns management included

Finally, you should definitely take a look at the tiresome subject of returns management. You have to differentiate how far the product range of the returns to be processed goes: with large full-range stores, the individual warehouse worker is certainly not in a position to determine the quality of each individual return right away. Here, too, a certain degree of automation combined with smart technologies can help. An example of this is data glasses or special display systems at the workplace that provide the employee with important information for a return. For example, an employee who is responsible for processing returns is able to decide whether or not the product can return to the first cycle for jeans or a smartphone.

Industry 4.0 – An RFID module guides you through the Future Factory – Source: ROI-Efeso

Of course, such smart solutions are of crucial importance for an effectively working system not only in returns processing but also in the order picking process in general. Here, too, automation technology can help ensure that the systems are ergonomically optimally connected to the respective employees. This has now gone so far that the employee no longer comes to the shelf, but the shelf to the employee (moving shelves), which can be achieved through fully networked transport systems. In this way, in addition to increasing efficiency, picking errors can also be avoided, ie making a return in advance superfluous.
This is the only way to achieve a high level of acceptance and the resulting high efficiency of the logisticians. It is also crucial that the employee is provided with the information they need quickly at all times. Instruments from Industry 4.0 such as 3D glasses, voice systems, picking aids and monitors, which are networked via intelligent systems, are of crucial importance and will become more and more essential in the future of Storage technology

Industrial IoT platform as a pioneer for medium-sized companies

Together with Intel as a partner, Thyssenkrupp Materials Services has not only networked its own production landscapes in one platform: the project resulted in toii, a digitization platform for medium-sized manufacturing companies.

Industrial IoT platform
Industrial IoT

The networking of machines and systems is still one of the greatest challenges in the Industry 4.0 environment. The aim is to network heterogeneous landscapes from new and, in some cases, decades-old systems (by means of retrofitting) within a common IoT-based data model. As one of the world’s largest material suppliers, ThyssenKrupp Material Services has over 4,500 production machines and systems from a wide range of manufacturers in use in its plants. The aim was to flexibly network these assets in order to increase plant productivity and create more transparency for more efficient production.
At the same time, they wanted to keep the respective individual production environments. The company did not find what it was looking for on the market: The offers of the major platform providers proved to be too complex and inflexible. That is why the decision was made to set up its own, tailor-made IIoT platform with Intel as a partner for the hardware. Thyssenkrupp Materials IoT GmbH (tkMIoT), a subsidiary of thyssenkrupp AG, was responsible for the project.

The Industrial IoT platform incorporates edge and cloud analytics

A whole range of tasks was mapped with the Industrial IoT platform, from machine data acquisition (including connection, transmission and storage) to production data acquisition from users and devices to machine automation with bidirectional communication. The platform enables the visualization of production data, for example for benchmarking, and organizes the complex data integration from different data sources, including ERP systems.
The Manufacturing Execution System was also integrated. A particularly important part were the topics of edge analysis for production optimization and quality assurance with production screening in real-time. The end-to-end platform enables the implementation of AI and machine learning at the edge of the network on-site or in the cloud.

Optimally coordinated hardware and software

Thanks to the individual modules, the platform maps many application scenarios and can be easily scaled. The solution consists of Intel servers and industrial PCs (IPCs) with the necessary storage and network resources, including gateway technology for connectivity.
With IIoT, the interaction between software and hardware determines the efficient real-time processing of data. Thanks to the intensive cooperation, tkMIoT was able to rely on the optimal combination of hardware technologies: The solution consists of Intel servers and industrial PCs (IPCs) with the required storage and network resources, including gateway technology for connectivity.

Make success accessible to other companies

The platform has been successfully implemented at more than 30 locations since 2017 and the entire range of machines and multi-level production systems, as well as the IT systems, have been connected to toii. ThyssenKrupp Materials Services was able to achieve significant advantages: Thanks to process automation, downtimes were reduced by up to 50 per cent and production increased by 20 per cent compared to the previous year. In addition, many error-prone, paper-based procedures have been eliminated.
ThyssenKrupp Materials IoT decided to use the solution to pave the way for other companies to digitize and automate production and to market toii as part of the Intel IoT Market Ready Solutions program. External customers include GGK, a subsidiary of the Grün group, which relies on the platform for extensive networking of its production. Steel Service Krefeld introduces toii. Lights to digitally network analogue machines and collect data for further processing.

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