SCADA

Automation | trends and perspectives

Digital networking via the Internet of Things is currently one of the megatrends. In addition, interdisciplinary and thinking across industry boundaries are required – especially in automation. New technologies can only develop their full potential with the help of a comprehensive process understanding.

Automation
Automation

With regard to Industry 4.0, the theory is increasingly followed by action. Many experts are convinced that further coordination and bundled activities in the industry will only set additional changes in motion. Dr Attila Bilgic, Managing Director and CTO (Chief Technology Officer) of the Krohne Group, Duisburg. “The industry is struggling to initiate disruptive approaches. However, we find it even more difficult to implement them. “However, the evolutionary development of processes works well, Figure 1:” We are able to further improve things that we are good at. ” Bilgictherefore recommends thinking outside the box about basic core business processes. In his opinion, one risk is missing out on new opportunities – with the effect that others close the gap and, as a result, fill the entire value chain. Real winners will recognize the opportunities that Industry 4.0 offers, Figure 2 – and seize them.

Automation solutions
Automation solutions

Anomaly detection to defend against cyber attacks

The diverse opportunities of Industry 4.0 are increasingly faced with questions of information security: How can the confidentiality, integrity and availability of industrial devices and systems be guaranteed? The “AnoKo” research project (Koramis GmbH, Potsdam; Zema – Center for Mechatronics and Automation Technology, Saarbrücken) aims to detect unauthorized access or interference in production systems. This is to be achieved by analyzing the industrial communication system of a production plant for deviations at defined time intervals. To get physical and Online training in all Automation courses click here

The anomaly detection system, which was further developed in the AnoKo project, enables operators to protect their production facilities more comprehensively from attacks. To this end, design analysis of selected industrial communication protocols is carried out first. On this basis, observation and evaluation criteria are defined and implemented. “With the help of the project results, anomaly detection systems can be more easily adapted to specific industrial protocols and evaluated under real conditions. These systems can then be subsequently integrated into existing systems or used as a basic platform for the development of future Industry 4.0 applications, ”explains Dipl.-Ing. Heiko Adamczyk , Business Development, Security and Industry 4.0 at Koramis.

Use data analysis for better user guidance

Analyze data and use it for optimization: This megatrend is not only reflected in security issues. A key question is how, thanks to integrated data analysis and fusion, improved user guidance of operator assistance systems is possible. They can help reduce costs caused by defective parts and processes in assembly. The crucial question in this process is which data can be used for analysis, how they are related to one another and how a corresponding recommendation for action can be obtained. Dipl.-Ing. Benno Lüdicke , Dipl.-Inf. Christoph Legat and David Renaudfrom Assystem, Paris / F. One question is, for example, how data analyzes can be used to reliably identify defective parts and thus avoid them. To do this, it is first necessary to reliably record the process parameters. Using the data analysis, the deviation can then be quantified and qualified.

Predictive maintenance in the context of Industry 4.0

Automating maintenance processes, making machine maintenance more efficient and finally achieving predictive maintenance: How this plan can be achieved step by step is shown by a current research project by Sybit GmbH, Radolfzell am Bodensee, in cooperation with the Swiss technology group Bühler, headquartered in Uzwil. Their machines are in use all over the world. The entire maintenance process is correspondingly complex.
In the first step, AR (Augmented Reality) glasses are used to reduce travel and time expenditure for service technicians. “The service specialist can inspect machines worldwide from his office and also guide the machine operator ‘on site’ with maintenance steps,” explains Sybit research director Dr.-Ing. Jesko Elsner. This forms the start of efficient remote diagnosis that saves money, time and effort. Successful remote maintenance is possible through the combination of human expertise, visual perception through the AR glasses and the data that the sensors of the machine continuously deliver. Many problems can already be solved this way. In addition, remote diagnosis makes it much more efficient to identify any need for spare parts and to send the required parts faster.

The project goes well beyond the individual maintenance case: data from various maintenance situations are collected and automatically evaluated by the system. This results in a pattern of frequent maintenance cases to which those responsible can react even faster and more systematically in the future – right up to predictive maintenance that predicts necessary maintenance intervals even more precisely and thus further shortens unplanned downtimes. “This could result in completely new business models for machine manufacturers in the future, for example in the combination of maintenance service and guaranteed production figures instead of just selling a single machine,” explains Dr. Elsner .

Automation Congress analyzes the trends

The specialist congress in the Kongresshaus Baden-Baden provided insights into these and other topics. The focal points continued to include efficiency increases in the planning of automated systems, the planning of the communication infrastructure for future automation systems and the role of Industry 4.0 and the “digital twin” in the life cycle of a system.

SCADA System

SCADA is the abbreviation for “Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition”. This word is currently widely used by industrialists, but it is still little known by most of us.

What is that? When should you use SCADA systems? Where can you use them? Etc.

Many of us want concrete answers to these questions. That’s why we’re going to walk you through everything there is to know about this topic in detail.

SCADA system
SCADA system

What exactly does the term SCADA mean?

SCADA is an acronym for four letters: Data Acquisition and Control System.

In fact, it refers to a category of software dedicated to controlling industrial processes and collecting data in real-time at remote sites. SCADA systems can be used to maintain control over your equipment, industrial processes, and to optimize their operating conditions.

A typical SCADA system is made up of transmitters, a remote terminal unit (RTU), communication protocols allowing communication between the servers and RTU transmitters, a data server for archiving data and supply the human-machine interfaces (HMI). HMIs are user interfaces that can connect the operator to the control device of an industrial system.

If a SCADA automation infrastructure is properly designed, it should enable companies to:

  • Better respond to operational questions
  • Do more, do better and at a lower cost
  • Increase the availability and life cycle of their equipment
  • Improve the performance and reduce the maintenance costs of their equipment
  • Etc.

Now here is an overview of the evolution of SCADA systems.

The four types of SCADA systems

There are different types of systems that can be considered SCADA architectures.

They improve as technologies evolve.

First-generation: monolithic SCADA systems

Previously, manufacturers have used minicomputers to optimize their processes and equipment.

Back in the day, monolithic SCADA systems were very popular and did not use common network services. The systems were therefore independent, that is, one computer could not connect to other systems. The remote sites were connected through a backup mainframe system.

This ensured the redundancy of the first generation SCADA system. The monolithic concept was mainly used in the event of the failure of the primary mainframe system. The use of this older form of SCADA system was limited to monitoring system sensors as well as signalling

any operation if programmed alarm levels were exceeded.

Second generation: distributed SCADA systems

For this second generation of SCADA systems, the sharing of control functions is distributed among several systems connected to each other via a local area network (LAN). They were therefore called distributed SCADA systems.

Individual stations were used to share real-time information, process orders and perform monitoring tasks to raise alarm levels in the event of problems. What differentiates them from older systems is the reduced cost and size of the station.

However, network protocols were not standardized, and the security of installations could only be determined by very few people other than developers. In other words, the security of the second generation SCADA installation has been ignored.

Third generation: networked SCADA systems

Current SCADA systems are now networked and can communicate over a Wide Area Network (WAN) over data lines or by telephone.

These systems typically use Ethernet or fibre-optic connections to transmit data between nodes. They also use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) to monitor or adjust routine signalling systems for critical decisions.

While the first and second generation SCADA systems were limited to single networks or buildings, the third generation SCADA uses the Internet, often implying a security concern.

Fourth generation: SCADA 4.0 systems based on the Internet of Things (IoT)

The emergence of the fourth generation of SCADA systems has drastically reduced the cost of infrastructure through the adoption of IoT technology and cloud computing. System integration and maintenance is therefore very easy compared to previous systems. The latest technological advancements in SCADA systems now allow real-time status reporting, the use of more complex control algorithms, and the increased security of sensitive information in large enterprises. In addition, these systems can be implemented on traditional PLCs.

SCADA: how does it work?

As already mentioned, SCADA is a term used to refer to centralized systems designed to control and monitor an entire industrial site or complex equipment spread over large areas. Almost all control actions are performed automatically by PLCs or RTUs.

Take the example of an industrial water supply process: the PLC can in this case-control the flow of cooling water and the SCADA system can record and display all changes related to the alarm conditions in case of variations. or loss of flow, a significant rise in temperature, etc.

The data is collected at an application programming interface or an RTU. They include condition reports of monitored equipment as well as meter readings. They will then be formatted so that the control room operator can take the necessary steps to add or override the normal PLC commands (RTU), using a Human Machine Interface (HMI).

Thus, the RTU can connect to the physical equipment and convert all the electrical signals coming from that equipment into digital values, such as the open or closed state of a valve or switch, flow or pressure measurements. pressure, current-voltage, etc.

In this way, the RTU can automatically control the equipment or allow an operator to do so, for example by closing or opening a valve or switch, or by adjusting the speed of the pump.

SCADA: the human-machine interface

It is worth mentioning what the HMI stands for. This is a device that delivers the data processed by the RTU to the human operator. The latter can therefore use it to control industrial processes.

The HMI is linked to the databases of the SCADA system, which allows it to display diagnostic data, management information, logistics information, detailed diagrams of the operation of a given machine or sensor, maintenance procedures or troubleshooting guides.

The operator can therefore have, for example, the image of a pump connected to the piping. The HMI provides him with a diagram that shows whether this pump is working or not, or whether the amount of liquid pumped through the piping is within the operating conditions of the equipment at any given time. In the event of an adjustment, for example, when a pump is stopped, the HMI software will instantly show the decrease in fluid flow in the pipes.

Note that the block diagrams provided by the HMI may be in the form of digital photographs of process equipment and be accompanied by animated symbols (schematic symbols, line graphics, etc.). As a result, representations can be as simple as an on-screen traffic light network, representing the status of the traffic light in real-time in a given area. They can also be very complex, such as the multi-projector display showing the position of all trains on a large railway network.

Generally speaking, SCADA systems are used in alarm systems, which means that there are only two digital status points. On the one hand, when the alarm’s requirements are met, it activates. If necessary, it remains in its state. In other words, they look like the fuel level alarm system in your car. When the tank is almost empty, the alarm activates automatically in the form of a light signal.

As for SCADA systems, company operators and managers are notified by text messages and emails sent with the alarm activated. But in addition, they can view graphical trends, manage the various parameters relating to the configuration of their equipment, etc.

In which areas can SCADA systems be used?

All over the world, SCADA systems are used in various applications and in all industries.

Production, transport, distribution of gas and electricity

In these different sectors, utilities use, for example, SCADA systems to detect current flow and line voltage, to monitor the operation of circuit breakers, etc. These tools can also assist in the monitoring and control of pipelines, the remote control of storage, pumping or refinery sites, or the control of the distribution of electrical energy from various energy sources such as coal, nuclear or gas.

Building

Building managers often use SCADA systems to control heating, air conditioning, refrigeration equipment and lighting units.

Manufacturing

In manufacturing industries, SCADA systems are used to manage manufacturing parts lists, optimize industrial automation, and monitor quality control systems and processes.

Public transport

As mentioned above, public transport services can use SCADA systems to regulate the electricity of subways, streetcars and trolleybuses.

In other cases, it is used to automate traffic lights in railway systems, to track and locate buses and trains, to control barriers at railway level crossings or to control the flow of traffic, by detecting, for example, fires that are out of order

Water and sanitation networks

Although not often covered in the media, SCADA systems are indeed used in the sanitation industry. The state and municipalities can use these systems to monitor and control water treatment centres, collection facilities and treated water disposal under the best conditions. Of course, other industries use this kind of software, such as those involved in agriculture and irrigation, pharmaceutical production, and telecommunications, among others.

How to choose your SCADA software?

Do you want to acquire this kind of tool, but you do not know how to choose? To help you, here are some criteria you should consider: compatibility, cost, included drivers, performance and security of SCADA.

Apart from that, you should also pay attention to the technical service that accompanies your software and its possibilities of adaptation with the technological tools of the future. In any case, you should always bet on the ease of deployment and use of your SCADA system.

Compatibility

Your SCADA system must be compatible with any operating system. So you can run it on Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows Server Editions Mac or Linux.

Cost: a decisive choice criterion

Of course, like any other software, the cost of acquiring, deploying, maintaining and upgrading it is critical. Its price must therefore include all these elements. In this way, you will avoid purchasing additional functions, for example, to be able to add them to your system.

Technical support

This element is often what differentiates one SCADA system from another. Data collection and analysis software, even if it comes at low prices, that does not offer good support will never be able to compete with others.

Choose a scalable solution

Your SCADA system must be very versatile in order for it to operate in different environments. If you are responsible for choosing a SCADA system for your business, you should consider how your needs will change over the next 15 years – the average life cycle of SCADA systems. All of this seems easier said than done. Here is why, if in doubt, you should call a specialist in the field.

SCADA security issues

Some manufacturers are reluctant to adopt the latest generation SCADA systems, mistakenly believing that they are vulnerable to cybercrime attacks. Some of them also believe that SCADA networks that are physically secure and disconnected from the Internet are secure enough. In reality, as SCADA systems can be used for monitoring and controlling strategic processes like water distribution, traffic light management, electricity distribution, gas transmission, etc., it is well logical to ask the question about possible hacks of the system and their consequences. To be honest, there are two major threats when it comes to SCADA systems. The first is unauthorized access to the software, carried out intentionally by human or inadvertent changes, virus infections and any other problem that can affect the controlling machine.

The second threat relates to packet access to network segments hosting SCADA systems. In many cases, vendors provide little security to the packet control protocol. So anyone who sends packets to the system could control it. Still, it is very easy to secure the system. For example, users can use VPN security to ensure sufficient protection. SCADA providers can also avoid these risks by setting up industrial firewalls specifically dedicated to TCP / IP-based SCADA networks. In addition, whitelist solutions can be implemented and they are able to prevent unauthorized modifications of applications.

Clarity, a solution that brings intelligence to your SCADA systems

The result of long years of research and development, Clarity is an interface provided by Crowley Carbon that allows companies to modernize their industrial processes. Built from the ground up and cloud-based, this software provides its users with an unmatched platform that brings intelligence to their SCADA systems. Thus, they can reduce the energy consumption of their businesses, increase uptime by reducing the downtime of their equipment, while improving the performance of their processes. Clarity provides remote visibility of data points, which enables manufacturers to monitor, compare, measure and improve the energy efficiency of their plant with exceptional reporting. To do this, users can use Clarity and optimize their processes in three steps.

Step 1: Modeling

  • Definition and modelling of critical processes,
  • Creation of “Digital Twins” or “Digital Twins“.

Step 2: Analyze the data

  • Overlay of data collected in real-time on the Digital Twins.
  • Generation of information from data mining

Step 3: Implement the solutions

Use of information to upgrade your equipment and processes.
Good to know: Digital twins are a digital replication of an asset, supply chain or process. They are very reliable compared to models and simulations that have already been used by companies, as they work in parallel with the real process. Digital Twins improve the performance of companies by increasing their creativity, their innovative strength, the efficiency of their teams and by offering the best returns as well as a stronger competitive position.

Why choose Clarity?

Energy Savings: This interface helps you measure and compare energy savings through comprehensive energy management and optimization system. Understanding of processes: In-depth knowledge of your metering systems, SCADA systems, programmable logic controllers, production systems, etc. is essential to shedding light on the performance of your processes in real-time. Thus, you can take the necessary measures to reduce your costs and improve the yields of your equipment and processes. Reliability: Clarity allows you to predict future failures of your equipment. So you can act before they happen and therefore reduce unplanned downtime. This allows you to maximize the profitability of your plant.

What about interface security?

When it comes to software and data security, Clarity developers recognize that the confidentiality, integrity and availability of user and customer data are essential. With a progressive approach to cloud security, they have implemented the most reliable data protection systems on the market. These systems allow them to continuously monitor applications and processes and then optimize them to meet growing demands and cybercrime risks.

Conclusion

You don’t have to be an expert to know that technology changes at a rapid rate. Manufacturers are also aware of this fact, which forces them to determine the best course of action to adopt in order to optimize their operational processes and increase their return on investment. One of the best ways to achieve this goal is to adopt reliable and scalable SCADA software. This technology is currently used in many industries, thanks to its ease of management and its many advantages. Clarity is a complete software that uses the SCADA system to enable manufacturers to improve the energy efficiency of their businesses. This system allows you to control and optimize many processes involved in the operation of your factory business and increase its profitability

Wonderware HMI | SCADA works for you

Excellence is a goal we share with our customers.
We listen to your goals, challenges, visions and aspirations. Wonderware is committed to being your long-term partner in the automation industry, supported by a global network of distributors, integrators, machine builders (OEMs) and solution builders (VARs).

Thirty years ago, Wonderware had the vision to develop Windows-based software that could interact with and control any industrial process and equipment, and that was as easy to use as a simple video game. Today as the world’s leading provider of HMI / SCADA solutions, Wonderware is proud to have certainly helped other visionaries realize their own visions of industrial innovation.

Wonderware HMI
Wonderware HMI

Discover the true value of Wonderware software

Imagine being able to develop, manage, update, deploy and maintain all automation operations centrally through a powerful development environment.

Imagine providing operators, maintenance personnel, IT personnel, production managers and business leaders with standardized interfaces containing highly contextualized real-time information, analysis and collaboration tools. to make better decisions and better understand the behaviour of operations to ultimately drive the business activities to their maximum potential.

Activate operational excellence throughout your organization
Organizations from multiple industries have chosen Wonderware InTouch and Wonderware System Platform solutions because they perfectly address the concerns of plant management, engineering, production and IT.

Activate operational excellence throughout your organization

Organizations from multiple industries have chosen Wonderware InTouch and Wonderware System Platform solutions because they perfectly address the concerns of plant management, engineering, production and IT.

Our HMI / SCADA solutions deliver operational excellence in all industry sectors, allowing all customers to better respond to the economic challenges of their operations, based on real-time performance management.

Connectez-vous virtuellement à n’importe quel système d’automation et équipement

Connect virtually to any automation system and equipment

Unlike many HMI vendors, Wonderware solutions are hardware independent; in fact, we are able to communicate with DCS systems, PLCs and various equipment such as Modicon, Allen-Bradley, Emerson, Foxboro, GE, Siemens and hundreds more. And like the IIoT, we remain committed to making it easy for you to interact with any equipment you may need to achieve your goals.

Whatever you do | do the best

Powerful and intelligent graphics and control panels provide context to the data, enabling faster analysis and improving operator efficiency.
Presentation styles ensure perfect consistency and standardization of human-machine interfaces, regardless of the people involved in the development of projects within your organization.
The graphic symbols of the library implement as standard a wizard allowing them to be reconfigured to meet specific needs, thus reducing application assembly times and the development and maintenance phases.

Do it in a more reliable way

Highly intuitive visual content, advanced HMI applications and intelligent user interfaces enhance standardization, consistency, situational awareness and handling of abnormal situations.
Support for integrated Microsoft security, Active Directory and the use of badge readers ensures state-of-the-art protection.
Support for the latest versions of Microsoft Hyper-V and VMware virtualization technologies allow you to reduce downtime and maintain better control of your applications.
In regulated industries, InTouch applications help you meet the most stringent security requirements like 21 CFR PART 11.

do it faster

A library of preprogrammed and standardized vector graphics objects as well as an automatic I / O allocation system allow for quick and easy changes at the application level.
Operators quickly and easily take into account changes in standardized applications – reducing user errors and learning times.

Do it with less effort

A design based on the standardization of components and their reuse improves engineering efficiency, reduces training costs and costs associated with the evolution of applications
Support for Microsoft Remote Desktop Services and Microsoft Hyper-V and VMware virtualization technologies reduces hardware costs and increases system availability.
InTouch applications developed in earlier versions over 10 years ago are instantly and effortlessly usable in the current version.

do it everywhere

The InTouch Access Anywhere extension provides remote access to your InTouch applications through any HTML5-compatible web browser to enable enterprise-wide viewing, collaboration and execution. Troubleshoot your plant’s equipment in a secure way, from any location, on any equipment, at any time.

PLC | Programmable Logic Controller

How to use Mitsubishi PLC jump instruction?

the conditional jump instruction shows that the code, mnemonic, operand and program steps of the instruction are shown in Table 8-3. Operand instruction name instruction code digits mnemonic D (·) program step condition jump FNC00 (16) CJCJ (P) P0~P127 P63 is END, without jump mark CJ and CJ(P)~3 step label P~ The use of the 1-step jump instruction in the ladder diagram is shown in the figure. The jump pointers P8 and P9 in the figure correspond to two jump instructions, CJP8 and CJP9, respectively. The meaning of the execution of the jump instruction is: when the jump condition (X000=ON) is met, the PLC does not execute the program between the jump instruction and the jump pointer Pn in each scan cycle but jumps to the pointer Pn It is executed in the block of entry until the jump condition is not met, the jump stops.
046811518222529P83640P943X000X001X002FNC00CJY001M1P8X000=ON, jump to P8; X000=OFF, execute in order X003S1X004T0X005RSTX006T246X007RSTX010C0X011X000X012Y001X013RSTT20OFFK3K0FNC12000CJY001M1P8X000=ON, jump to P8; The working status table 8-4 of the influence of the input or the state of the predecessor device before and after the jump in the figure on the result of the program execution. (1) The output relay Y, auxiliary relay M, and state S in the skipped block are no longer executed. Even if the working conditions involved in the ladder diagram change, their working states remain before the jump occurs. The status remains unchanged. Table 8-4 Effect of component jump on component status Contact state X001, X after the jump

plc
plc

How to use Mitsubishi PLC jump instruction CJ P0?

P0 is just the pointer number, and the driving condition is closed to jump to the designated number to execute this part of the program.
  The conditional jump instruction CJ is used to skip a certain part of the sequence program to shorten the operation cycle and control the flow of the program. The mnemonic of the instruction is CJ, the instruction code is FNC00, and the operating elements are P0-P127, and its program steps The situation is that CJ is 3 steps, and the label P is 1 step.
  If the timer and counter are working at the beginning of the skipped step, it will stop timing and counting during the skipped step, and continue to work when the condition of the CJ instruction becomes unsatisfactory. The processing of the high-speed counter is independent of the main program, and its work is not affected by the skip. If the CJ instruction is driven by the moving and closing contacts of the M8000, the conditional jump becomes an unconditional jump.
 Extended information:
  Precautions for the use of Mitsubishi plc jump instructions:
  1. JCP instruction is expressed as pulse execution mode.
  2. A label can only appear once in a program, otherwise, an error will occur.
  3. During the execution of the jump, even if the driving conditions of the skipped program are changed, the coil (or result) remains in the state before the jump, because the program is not executed at all during the jump.
  4. If the reset (RST) instruction of the totalizer timer and counter is outside the jump area, even if the coil is jumped, the reset is still valid.

The difference between Mitsubishi plc interrupt instruction and interlocking

The difference between Mitsubishi plc interrupt instruction and interlocking
The jump instruction means that the program jumps to the marked position to continue execution, and the skipped part is not executed
To call a subroutine is to jump from the current to the subroutine segment, and return to continue executing the next program of CALL after execution.
The interrupt instruction is similar to the process of executing a subroutine. Both jump, execute and return to the breakpoint to continue execution, but it may be executed anywhere in the program (triggered by external conditions), and the subroutine call is only when the program runs to a specific location. implement.

Who has the PLC jump instruction ladder diagram?

Transfer instructions are also called transfer instructions. After using the jump instruction in the program, the system can choose to execute different program segments according to different conditions. The jump instruction is composed of the jump instruction JMP and the label instruction LBL. The JMP instruction is programmed in the form of a coil in the ladder diagram.
When the control conditions are met, the jump instruction JMP n is executed, and the program is transferred to the destination location specified by the label n. The position is determined by the label instruction LBL n. The range of n is 0-255.
Pay attention to the following issues when using jump instructions.
1) JMP and LBL instructions must be in the same block, such as the same main program, subprogram or interrupt program. That is, it is not possible to jump from one block to another block.
2) After executing the jump instruction, the counter in the program segment between JMP and LBL stops counting, and its count value and counter bit status remain unchanged.
3) After the jump instruction is executed, the state of output Q, bit memory M and sequence control relay S in the block between JMP and LBL remains unchanged.
4) After executing the jump instruction, in the program segment between JMP and LBL, the timer with a resolution of 1 ms and 10 ms keeps the original working state and function; the timer with a resolution of 100 ms stops working. The value remains unchanged at the time of the jump.
  
The working process of this example is as follows.
1) When the input terminal I0.1 is turned on, the jump instruction JMP is executed, and the program skips network 2 and transfers to the position labelled 6 for execution.
2) For the skipped network 2, its output Q0.0 state remains unchanged from the state before the jump.

How to use Plc jump instruction?

Since you did not specify which brand of PLC, I will take S7-300 as an example directly. When you use the STL language for programming, jump instructions include JU, JL, TC, TCN, JCB, JNB, etc., and JU is unconditional. Jump, JL multi-branch jump, JC is RLO=1 is jumping waiting, in fact, there is help in the programming software to directly check which is more clear, and there are examples

In Mitsubishi PLC programming, what is the difference between

Subroutines help you divide the program into blocks. The instructions used in the main program determine the execution status of the specific subroutine. When the main program calls and executes the subprogram, the subprogram executes all instructions until the end. Then, the system returns control to the main program in the calling subprogram network.
Subroutines are used to segment and divide the program into smaller, more manageable blocks. You can take advantage of this when debugging and maintenance in the program. By using smaller program blocks, these areas and the entire program can be easily debugged and trouble-shooted. Calling the program blocks only when needed, the PLC can be used more effectively, because all the program blocks may not need to perform each scan.
Finally, if the subroutine only references parameters and local memory, the subroutine can be moved. In order to move subroutines, avoid using any global variables/symbols (I, Q, M, SM, AI, AQ, V, T, C, S, absolute addresses in AC memory). If the subroutine has no call parameters (IN, OUT, or IN_OUT) or only uses local variables in the L memory, you can export the subroutine and import it into another project.
To use a subroutine in a program, you must perform the following three tasks:
Establish subroutines
Define parameters in the local variable table of the subroutine (if any)
Call the subroutine from the appropriate POU (from the main program or another subroutine)
When the subroutine is called, the entire logic stack is saved, the top of the stack is set to one, all other stack positions are set to zero, and control is transferred to the calling subroutine. When the subroutine is completed, the stack is restored to the value retained at the call point, and control returns to the calling routine.
The subroutine and the calling routine share the accumulator. Due to the use of subroutines, no save or restore operation is performed on the accumulator.
Call subroutine with parameters
The subroutine may contain parameters for handover. The parameters are defined in the local variable table of the subroutine. The parameter must have a symbolic name (up to 23 characters), a variable type, and a data type. 16 parameters can be transferred to the subprogram or 16 parameters can be transferred from the subprogram.
The variable type field in the local variable table defines whether the parameter is transferred to the subroutine (IN), transferred to or transferred out of the subroutine (IN_OUT) or transferred out of the subroutine (OUT). The following table shows the parameter types of the subroutine. To add a parameter item, place the cursor on the variable type field of the type you want to add (IN,
IN_OUT or OUT). Right-click the unipolar mouse to get the options menu. Select the “Insert” option, and then select the “Next row” option. Another parameter entry of the selected type will be displayed below the current entry.
The jump to label (JMP) instruction performs branch operations on the specified label (n) in the program. When the jump is accepted, the top value of the stack is always logic 1. The label (LBL) instruction marks the location of the jump destination (n). You can use the “jump” instruction in the main program, subroutine or interrupt routine. The “jump” and it’s corresponding “label” instructions must always be located in the same code segment (main program, subroutine or interrupt routine). You cannot jump from the main program to a label in a subprogram or interrupt routine. Similarly, you cannot jump from a subprogram or interrupt routine to a label outside the subprogram or interrupt routine. You can use the “jump” instruction in the SCR segment, but the corresponding “label” instruction must be located in the same SCR segment.
The Enable Interrupt (ENI) instruction globally enables all additional interrupt event processes. The Disable Interrupt (DISI) instruction globally prohibits all interrupt event processes. When transitioning to RUN mode, the interrupt is disabled at the beginning. Once you enter the RUN mode, you can enable all interrupt processes by executing the global interrupt enable instruction. Executing the interrupt prohibition instruction will prohibit processing interrupts, but the active interrupt event will continue to be queued for waiting

What is the difference between jump instruction and interrupt?

Jump instruction, you will not jump until it is executed. That is, it will be executed only after the scanning period has been scanned, just like your mother told you not to play games to buy food, you have to wait until the game is over.
And interruption, when an interruption occurs, stop the current scan for interruption processing, just like your girlfriend, let you come over now, even if you are in the game.

What is the function and role of the jump instruction in PLC?

This is basically the case.
Jump instruction, jump to the pointer position for execution, execute to the return instruction and then return to the next jump instruction to continue execution.
There are many types of interrupts, some of which are not scanned. Anyway, always continue to execute the next program after execution.

WINCC 7.0 Installation Manual

Details the steps of WINCC7.0 installation and authorization

WINCC7.0 free dog cracking installation method

Wincc 7.0 Chinese version Installation method Tags: Miscellaneous After the software is installed, it is best to restart the computer, and then we can do 2 steps. The video is more troublesome. 1,. First, overwrite the harddog cracked file, (the cracked file is authorized by G:\simatic wincc 7.0) The specific operation method for cracking the USB harddog is as follows: First, check in the task manager (open and click ctrl+alt+delete) to see if there is any The CCLicenseService.exe process is running, if there is one, terminate the process first, and then find the CCLicenseService.exe file in the C:\Program Files\Common Files\Siemens\BIN folder (this is the default installation folder, if you install it in other Partition, please find it in the corresponding partition), rename and save it (for example, change to CCLicenseService0.exe or CCLicenseService-old.exe, etc.), and then put the attached file with the same name in the folder. What’s the change if you try to run WINCC now? Of course, you need to install the soft license first, just like other versions. If there are any problems with the operation, you can end the CCLicenseService.exe process in the memory, and then restore the original file. Installation method: wincc v7.2 1. Install windows components: Message Quering and IIS 2. Load the ISO file with a virtual CD-ROM drive and run WinCC_V70_SP2.exe 3. After the installation program dialog box appears, do not press any buttons 4. In the root directory of the C drive, find the temporary folder C:{NUMBERS-NUMBERS-….} For example: {DFDBB8FE-7426-454A-937C-F8E9230F896A} 5. In this folder, find the Properties_SiWA.ini file , Open with Notepad and modify the [Conditions] section: It used to be: [Conditions] Action1=Extract Action1Condition=Condition1 AND Condition2 AND Condition3 (this line needs to be modified) Condition1 …. (this line is deleted) Condition2 …. (Deleted from this line) Condition3 ….. (Deleted from this line) After modification, it reads: [Conditions] Action1=Extract Action1Condition= Then save it. 6. Back to the installation program, you can install WinCC 7.0 SP2 normally. Regarding the problem of using the USB hard dog in the Asian version of WINCC 7.0, there is now a solution. Because the corresponding English version of WINCC7.0 still uses the soft license, for the WINCC7.0 Asian version using the USB harddog, we only need to replace one file, and the soft license can be used just like the English version. The specific operation method is as follows: First check whether there is a CCLicenseService.exe process running in the task manager, if there is one, terminate the process first, and then find CCLicenseService in the C:\Program Files\Common Files\Siemens\BIN folder .exe file (this is the default installation folder, if you install it in another partition, please find it in the corresponding partition), rename it and save it (for example, change to CCLicenseService0.exe or CCLicenseService-old.exe, etc.), and then copy the English The file with the same name of the version can be placed in this folder. What’s the change if you try to run WINCC now? Of course, you need to install the soft license first, just like the version before 7.0. 3.

wincc installation
wincc installation

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I don’t know how you installed it. Did you install it with your system disk? Message Queuing is not installed by default. You need to install Message Queuing with the installation disk that installs this operating system. Then install WinCC. Respondent: zhangli0 2015-02-04 11:20 zhangli0-Super Advisor Level 15…
WinCC7.0 has been working for a long time, and finally, the installation is complete. Various mining pits. . . Create a new virtual win7, install the pure version, otherwise, it is very likely that you can’t open the message queue to install winCC7.0, and the WINCC7.0 Asian version downloaded from the Internet has an error and cannot install SQL2005. After looking for a long time, I can’t find it, so I have to ask the seniors. ..
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