Total losses in power distribution and transmission lines

1.Continuation of the first part: Total losses in power distribution and transmission lines
There are two types of power distribution and transmission lines:
Technical losses ( explained in the previous part )
Non-technical losses ( commercial losses )

  1. Non-technical (commercial losses)
    The non-technical losses are at 16.6% and related to the meter reading, defective meter and meter reading error, billing of customer’s energy consumption, lack of administration, financial constraints, estimate of energy supply. unmetered energy as well as energy theft
    Main reasons for non-technical losses
    How to reduce technical losses?
    How to reduce non-technical losses?

Main reasons for non-technical losses

  1. Theft of power
    Electricity theft is the energy supplied to customers that are not measured by the energy meter for the customer.
    The customer tempers the meter by means of mechanical shaking, placing strong magnets, or disturbing the rotation of the disc with foreign bodies, stopping the meters remotely.

2.measurement inaccuracies
Losses due to measurement inaccuracies are defined as the difference between the amount of energy actually supplied by the meters and the amount recorded by the meters.
All energy meters have some level of error, which requires standards to be set. Measurement Canada, formerly Industry Canada, is responsible for regulating the accuracy of energy meters.
The legal requirements relating to meters are within an accuracy range of + 2.5% and – 3.5%. Old tech counters normally started life with negligible errors, but as their mechanisms got older they slowed down, resulting in under-recording. Modern electronic meters do not under-register with age in this way.
As a result, with the introduction of electronic-meter technology, there should have been a gradual reduction in meter errors. The increase in the replacement rate of mechanical meters is expected to accelerate this process

  1. Unmeasured losses for a very small load
    Unmeasured losses are situations where energy use is estimated instead of being measured with an energy meter. This happens when the loads are very small and the installation of energy meters is economically impractical.
    Examples of this are street lights and cable TV amplifiers.
  2. Unmeasured supply
    One of the main reasons for the loss of business is the unmetered supply of agricultural pumps. In most states, the farm rate is based on the unit horsepower (HP) of the engines. Such power charges are sanctioned with low charge declarations.
    Once the connections are released, consumers increase their connected loads, without obtaining the necessary sanction, for increased load, from the utility. Another estimate of the energy consumed during an unmetered supply has a large impact on the estimate of T&D losses due to the errors inherent in the estimate.
    Most utilities deliberately overestimate unmetered agricultural consumption in order to obtain a higher subsidy from the state government. and also project. reduction of losses. In other words, the higher the estimates of unmeasured consumption, the lower the T&D loss figure and vice versa.
    In addition, the correct estimate of unmeasured consumption by the agricultural sector largely depends on the type of crop, the level of the water table, seasonal variations, hours of operation, etc.
  3. Meter reading error
    A properly calibrated meter should be used to measure electrical energy. The defective energy meter must be replaced immediately. Reasons for faulty meters are burning of meters, meter terminal box due to heavy load, incorrect transmission ratio, reduction in registration, incorrect testing, and calibration of meters.
  4. Billing issues
    Defective and untimely invoices should be part of the non-technical losses.
    Normal billing complaints are not receipt of an invoice, late receipt of an invoice, receipt of a bad bill, wrong meter reading, wrong rate, wrong.
power distribution
power distribution and transmission lines

How to reduce technical losses?

  1. Conversion of LV line to HV line
    Much low voltage (430 V) distribution pockets in town are surrounded by higher-voltage power lines. At this lower voltage, more conductor current flows for the same power output, resulting in increased i 2 R losses.
    Conversion of the old LV (430 V) feeders to higher voltage power supply, the investment cost is high and is often not economically justifiable, but if some parts of the LV (430 V) primary power supplies are in relatively good condition, the installation of several step-down power transformers on the periphery of the 430-volt zone will reduce load current losses at several points ( i.e. reduce the total conductor current and the distance traveled by the current to serve the load ).
  2. Large commercial/industrial consumers get a direct line from the charger
    Design the distribution network system in such a way that, if possible, large consumers will get the feeder line directly.
  3. Adoption of high voltage distribution service (HVDS) for agricultural customer
    In direct high voltage service (HVDS) , 11KV line given directly to the group of 2 to 3 agricultural customers for a group of agricultural pumps and small distribution transformer (15KVA) for these 2 to 3 customers via smaller LT distribution lines (almost negligible ).
    In HVDS, the distribution losses are due to minimum distribution line length, high power quality without voltage drop, less motor burnout due to less voltage fluctuation, and good power quality, to avoid transformer overloads.
  4. Adoption of Arial Beam Driver (ABC)
    When the LT line is not totally avoidable, use Arial Bundle Conductor to minimize errors in the lines, to avoid direct line theft (line tampering ).
  5. Reduce the number of transformers
    Reduce the number of processing steps. Transformers are responsible for almost half of network losses. High-efficiency distribution transformers can have a big impact on reducing distribution losses.
  6. Use the charger at its average capacity
    By overloading the distribution, the distribution losses increase.
    The higher the load on a power line, the higher its variable losses. It has been suggested that the optimum average utilization rate of distribution network cables should be as low as 30% if the cost of losses is taken into account.
  7. Replacement of old conductors/cables
    By using more the cross-section of conductors/cables, the losses will be less, but at the same time cost will be high; thus, in forecasting the future load, an optimal balance should be maintained between investment costs and network losses.
  8. Feeder renovation / improvement program
    Renewal of the transmission and distribution line depending on the load.
    Identification of the weakest areas of the distribution system and strengthening/improvement of these.
    Reducing the length of LT lines by relocating distribution substations or installing new additional distribution transformers.
    Installation of low-capacity distribution transformers in each place of consumption instead of forming clusters and replacing distribution transformers with lower no-load losses, such as amorphous core transformers
    Installation of shunt capacitors to improve the power factor.
    Installation of single-phase transformers to supply domestic and non-domestic load in rural areas.
    Supply of small 25 kVA distribution transformers with a distribution box fixed to its body, allowing the installation of meters, an MCCB, and a capacitor
    Direct insulated service line for every agricultural consumer from distribution transformers
    Due to the feeder refurbishment program, production and processing losses can be reduced by 60-70% to 15-20%.
  9. A program targeting the industrial and urban sectors
    Separation of rural feeders from industrial feeders.
    Instant release of new industrial or HV connections.
    Identify and replace slow and slow meters with electronic type meters.
    Industrial and agricultural consumers adopt a consumer, a transformer system with a meter should be introduced.
    Change of the old service line by shielded cable.
    Due to the food center refurbishment program, D&D losses can be reduced from 60-70% to 15-20%.
  10. Strictly follow the preventive maintenance program
    Required to adopt a preventive line maintenance program to reduce losses due to faulty or leaking pipe parts. Required gaskets, wire to reduce leakage current.

How to reduce non-technical losses?

  1. Make distribution line mapping/data
    Mapping of the complete primary and secondary distribution system with all parameters such as conductor size, line length, etc.
    Compilation of data regarding existing loads, operating conditions, forecast of planned loads, etc. Preparation of long-term plans for the strengthening and phased improvement of the distribution systems as well as the transmission system.
  2. Implementation of energy audit programs
    It should be mandatory for all major industries and utilities to perform energy audits of their system.
    Additional action in time for the initiation of studies To ensure that losses incurred by technical and non-technical expenses are realistically assessed, utilities should also identify areas with high losses and take corrective measures to reduce them.
    The realistic assessment of a utility’s T&D loss depends largely on the sample size chosen, which in turn influences the desired level of confidence and the tolerance limit of variation in the results.
    In view of this, it is essential to set a limit on the sample size for a quick and realistic estimate of losses.
  3. Mitigate power theft by checking drives
    Electricity theft is a major problem with all-electric utilities. The state government needs to strictly regulate the theft of power. India’s Electricity Law has been amended to make stealing and reducing energy an offense punishable by death with a punitive sanction of up to three years in prison.
    The impact of theft is not limited to loss of income, it also affects the quality of electricity, resulting in low voltages and voltage dips.
    Required to install proper seal management at Meter terminal, CT / PT terminal to prevent power theft. Identify the power flight area and needed to speed up the power flight check commands. Installation of medium voltage distribution networks (MVD) in areas exposed to theft, with direct connection of each consumer to the low voltage terminal of the supply transformer.
    All existing unmetered services should be stopped immediately.
  4. Replacing the faulty/slow energy meter
    It is necessary to replace the faulty or slow meter with a distribution agency to reduce unmetered electrical energy.
    Required to test the multimeter periodically for the purpose of testing the accuracy of the meter. Replacement of old erroneous electromechanical meters with precise electrostatic meters (micro-presser base) for precise measurement of energy consumption
    Use the meter boxes and seal them properly to ensure that the meters are properly sealed and cannot be tampered with.
  5. Ease of invoice collection
    Increase the number of invoice payment cells and increase the number of drop boxes in all collection areas
    The electronic payment system provides further relief to the customer for paying invoices and the sourcing agency will get the payment from the customer on a regular and prompt basis.
    Effectively disconnect the link of the defaulting customer who does not pay the invoice rather than giving them the option to pay the invoice
  6. Reduce the flow areas of the sub-division
    Collection of old debts in certain cases through legal actions, communications, and legal proceedings. Make sure that the police intervene if necessary to disconnect the connection of the faulty consumer.
  7. Watchdog effect on users
    Users should be aware that the Distribution Agency can monitor consumption at its convenience. This allows the company to quickly detect any abnormal consumption due to the modification or bypass of a meter and allows it to take corrective measures.
    The result is consumer discipline. This has proven to be extremely effective with all categories of large and medium-sized consumers with a history of electricity theft. They stop stealing as soon as they realize that the utility has the means to detect and register it.
    These measures can significantly increase the revenues of non-technical high-loss utility companies.
  8. Scheduled loss reduction
    Increased supply hours for domestic Agriculture and Rural consumers have resulted in increased losses

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