Why quantum sensors are becoming increasingly important

Quantum sensors achieve measurement results of unique precision.

Quantum sensors technology is to be used in autonomous driving, among other things
Quantum sensor technology

Quantum sensors answer questions even before we ask them. In autonomous vehicles, they recognize whether there is a vehicle outside of our field of vision behind the next corner of the house on a collision course with us. Diagnose at checkups for cancer and Alzheimer’s the diseases before the first symptoms appear.
In order to obtain these findings, the sensors analyze the interaction between the atoms of the measurement objects and quantum elements such as electrons. “Because these are super sensitive, the sensors come to extremely precise measurement results,” explains Professor Tommaso Calarco, Director of the Institute for Quantum Control at the Peter Grünberg Institute of the Research Center.
Both energetic states such as temperatures or speeds as well as the location and nature of an object can be measured. Quantum sensors can also visualize molecules and their chemical composition. They achieve a resolution of up to 20 nanometers. At 10,000 nanometers in diameter, human hair is 500 times thicker. Even the smallest viruses are around 100 nanometers in size.

Quantum technology explained

What is quantum technology actually? Why are quantum technologies so relevant? You can read answers to all these questions in our big overview: ” What you need to know about quantum technology “.
Here you can find out why the technology is so relevant for Germany and what research, politics and companies are planning: ” Quantum technology: why Germany must act now “.

Error-free function without calibration

“If we were to entangle two quantum objects in a quantum sensor and use them for the measurement, the sensor would be even more sensitive,” adds Tommaso Calarco. However, unlike quantum computers, quantum sensors usually do not work with the entanglement and superposition of quantum elements. As a result, they are less susceptible to faults than supercomputers and do not have to be operated in cryostatic environments in order to function correctly. Since they compare the measured physical properties with quantities given by nature at the atomic level, they do not need to be calibrated.
“The currently most advanced approach in quantum sensor technology is nitrogen-vacancy technology,” explains Dr Christoph Nebel, Head of the Diamond Components Business Unit at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF). Scientists like him and his colleagues grow the finest needles from artificial diamonds. At their point, they remove two carbon atoms from the lattice structure of the gemstone.
They replace one of them with a nitrogen atom. This has one more electron than the surrounding carbon can bind. Therefore, it falls into the vacancy left free next to the nitrogen molecule. There it becomes the smallest magnetometer in the world and turns the so-called nitrogen-vacancy centre into a quantum sensor. To get more interesting information related to Quantum technology and other Automation and Electrical engineering go to the given link.

A matter of turns

Like every electron, it is in a natural gyratory motion. “This spin creates a magnetic field,” explains Nebel. “This changes when other magnetic fields act on it.” In a nitrogen-vacancy sensor, these are the magnetic fields of the electrons in the atoms of the measurement objects. This scans the diamond needle like an atomic force microscope.
“The electron in the nitrogen-vacancy centre also has a base energy level and an exciting level that is only slightly above it. This level splits when an external magnetic field acts on the electron. The splitting is greater, the stronger the acting field is,” Nebel continues.
Ultimately, this changes the colour and brightness of the light that passes through the diamond needle. By analyzing it, the strength and changes in the external magnetic field and, in conclusion, the nature, energy, movement or location of the measured substances or objects can be identified. Since magnetic fields can hardly be blocked or shielded, electrons in quantum sensors also react to the effects of objects that are outside of the human field of vision – for example underground or behind a corner of a house.

New ways of quality assurance of semiconductors

In the future, semiconductor manufacturers will use nitrogen-vacancy sensors to control the quality of their products. Since chips and memory have to process more and more data without getting bigger, a Pentium processor now contains over 30 million transistors. The magnetic structures on a hard drive are now only 10 to 20 nanometers in size. Whether they have errors can only be detected on this scale with the help of quantum sensors

In addition to nitrogen-vacancy sensors, there are numerous other approaches to achieve high-precision measurement results with the help of quantum physics – such as quantum gravimeters, gravitational-wave interferometers or quantum gyroscopes and accelerometers. They record movements, directions and speeds so precisely that they can navigate precisely by comparing their measurement results with a digital map, even without satellite support.
This makes quantum sensors a key technology for Quantum sensors. “Because there are always GPS shadows, especially in cities, several sensor principles must be used simultaneously for reliable operation of autonomous vehicles. Quantum sensors would be of great help here,” explains Christoph Nebel from Fraunhofer IAF.

Time measurement in unison of the atoms

“Quantum sensors can also detect raw material deposits, oil fields or underground water reserves at great depths based on their gravitational properties,” says Tommaso Calarco, explaining another area of ​​application for the technology.
Quantum clocks are also among the quantum sensors. They measure time-based on the vibration of atoms and provide ultra-precise time references and geographic longitude standards in the aerospace industry. They can also be used to synchronize critical infrastructures such as line and communication networks or financial transactions over long distances.
In medicine, radiologists are already using quantum sensors in special magnetic resonance tomographs. However, such devices have to cool down for two hours after each use and cost up to 1.6 million euros.
No one has yet calculated how much manufacturers could earn with quantum sensors. In 2023, the technology and market research company Intrado estimates that the market for all quantum technologies – i.e. not only sensors but also quantum computers, cryptography and communication – will be a good 13 billion US dollars.

German companies in pole position

German and European companies will account for a large part of this turnover. In 2018, every second participant in the “Zeiss Symposium – Optics in the Quantum World” expected Europe to be a leader in the implementation and use of quantum technologies in 2030. Four out of ten respondents see Asia ahead, only 14 per cent the USA. That was the result of a survey during the congress.
The confidence is no accident. For example, Bosch is currently working with the University of Mainz to develop gyroscopes for autonomous driving that use quantum laws. Quantum technologies are also at the top of the research agenda at Siemens, Airbus, the laser technology specialist Trumpf and the supplier to the semiconductor industry Zeiss

The EU Commission wants to take Europe to the top in quantum technology

The European Commission recently also emphasized the opportunities offered by the technologies in a communiqué to the Council and Parliament of the Community. As part of the European Quantum Technologies Flagship Project, the EU has been funding more than 5,000 scientists and 140 research projects since 2018. It will spend a total of one billion euros over a period of ten years.
In quantum sensing, this money will bear fruit sooner than in quantum computing. The supercomputers will probably only change the world in ten to fifteen years. Quantum computers will probably only change the world in ten to fifteen years. “We will already see substantial progress in quantum sensor technology within the next EU funding period up to 2027,” Tommaso Calarco from FZ Jülich is convinced. “The first prototypes of quantum sensors for autonomous driving could already be available by the end of this period,” the physicist expects.
The range of applications for the technology could also expand considerably by then. “Since we can measure more precisely with quantum sensors than ever before, I don’t rule out the possibility that we don’t even know many things that we could investigate with the technology,” adds Tommaso. If so, quantum sensors would indeed answer questions before we even ask them.


Everything you need to know about Powerline and Powerline adapters

Whether e-mails, research or streaming – in most households a large part now runs via the Internet. If the WiFi doesn’t work properly, it can get on your nerves. And it was precisely for these cases that Powerline was developed: With a Powerline adapter, the home network is set up over the power lines. But how exactly does the Internet work from the socket? When and for whom does this technology make sense? And what should you look out for with the Powerline adapter? Here you will find all the important information about the somewhat different network.

  • What is a powerline?
  • How does Powerline work?
  • How to connect a powerline?
  • How do I get stable WiFi?
  • When does powerline make sense?
  • What can interfere with Powerline?
  • Which powerline adapters are the best?
  • Conclusion: The Internet is something different

Due to the high demand, we have updated this article and added the question “How do I get a stable WLAN?”.

What is a powerline?

There are numerous power lines in a house and while they are designed for lighting and power, they can be used for other purposes. Signals can also be transmitted with electrical cables without impairing the flow of electricity. And that is exactly what is meant by the term powerline: data transmission via the power line.
With Powerline products, the existing power lines can be used to set up or expand a local network and bring the Internet to all rooms without a repeater or laying new network cables. The technology behind it is also known as PowerLAN or Powerline Communication (PLC).

Note: Powerline is only used to create a local network. An Internet connection must therefore be available from which the Powerline adapter can obtain the Internet signals.

How does Powerline work?

A Powerline adapter seldom comes alone: ​​where there is a transmission, there must also be a receiver!


Have a hard time imagining how this is supposed to work? Simply plug the laptop power supply into the socket and YouTube is already powered? Then again, it’s not that simple. Of course, some technology is required to be able to establish the Internet connection through electrical wiring.
There are special adapters for this, the so-called Powerline adapters. These convert the data streams of the Internet connection into high-frequency signals. The signals then find a way through the power line to other powerline adapters.
The adapters convert the signals back into understandable data and, depending on the application, forward them to a PC, smart TV or another network device.

Powerline clearly explained

The Powerline principle can be easily symbolized with a little music. Imagine hiring a flute player who is particularly talented in improvisation to play at home. It is positioned centrally on the ground floor so that it can be heard in as many rooms as possible. Despite the loud sounds, the flutes can only be heard softly or not at all on the upper floors. Like a WLAN router, whose Internet signals can only be received weakly on the upper floors.
So that one can also enjoy his improvisations in rooms further away from the flute player, he has an assistant who notates his flute playing in notes. The sheet music is sent to the appropriate rooms in the building via a system of pipes. They have received thereby another flute player who can read music and faithfully reproduces the flute playing from the ground floor.
The powerline adapter next to the wireless router does not write the wireless signals on sheet music but converts them into other signals that can be transmitted through the power line. As soon as these signals are received by another Powerline adapter installed in the house, it understands the signals and converts them back accordingly, ultimately enabling a reliable Internet connection even in more distant areas.

Tip: If two adapters are not enough for you, you can easily expand your powerline network with several powerline adapters. If your garden shed has electricity, nothing stands in the way of internet access!

How to connect a powerline?

A powerline set always consists of at least two powerline adapters. One takes on the function of a transmitter and delivers the Internet, so to speak, in the powerline network. It is connected to a router with a LAN cable and plugged into a socket next to it. With most models, a powerline encryption button must be pressed briefly on the adapter connected to the router.
Within minutes, the other adapter, acting as a receiver, can be plugged into an outlet in any room in the house. Now the encryption button must be pressed here as well. As soon as the adapter indicates that a successful connection has been established, the powerline network is set up and data, photos, films and music will bring new momentum to your power line.
Tip: If you are not satisfied with the speed of your Powerline adapter, try different positions. Depending on the electrical circuit and electrical wiring, the performance of the adapter can change just by plugging it into an adjacent outlet.

How do I get stable WiFi?

Is the Wi-Fi reception poor in some rooms or does the connection break down frequently? There are some easy-to-implement measures to solve these annoying connection problems.
With a router, the quality of a WLAN connection depends, among other things, on the following factors:

  • location
  • frequency
  • Range

location of the router

The connection can be improved simply by positioning the router correctly. Be sure to place or hang the router centrally. Ideally, it should be slightly elevated and freestanding.
How good the signal strength of the router is can be measured with apps such as the FRITZ!App WLAN. When looking for the optimal location, keep in mind that walls, ceilings and furniture can interfere with the connection.

the frequency range of the router

Your router has always worked great and suddenly you are struggling with connection problems? Then it may be because other wireless routers have been installed in the area and are transmitting on the same frequency.
If your router can broadcast on a 5 GHz and a 2.4 GHz frequency, change the frequency range to 5 GHz in the settings. In this way, your router will no longer be disturbed by other WLAN routers in terms of frequency.
Note: The difference between the two frequency ranges is that the 5 GHz frequency can carry more data while the 2.4 GHz frequency has a longer range.

range of the router

If changing the position and frequency of the router does not help, its range may simply not be sufficient for all rooms and floors. There are two devices that can improve range: WiFi repeaters and powerline adapters.
While WiFi repeaters need a strong signal from the router to amplify it, a powerline adapter relays the WiFi signals over the power lines.

When does powerline make sense?

Powerline makes sense wherever the WLAN range is too short and no new network cables should be laid. Because the advantage of this network technology is that the necessary infrastructure is available in every room: power lines and sockets. Especially in old buildings, Powerline often offers an elegant solution to expand the WLAN network.

Which is better: powerline or repeater?

If the building is too big or the walls are too thick, both powerline adapters and WiFi repeaters offer a possible solution to extend the local network. Both have the advantage that the setup is easy for the user. No physical changes need to be made to the building and the devices are quickly connected to the home WiFi router.
The critical point when deciding on a powerline adapter or WLAN repeater lies in the environmental conditions. Because although both techniques depend heavily on the conditions in the environment, they do so in different ways.
Obstacles such as furniture, walls and ceilings can influence the way wireless repeaters work. Radio networks in the neighbourhood can also be a disruptive factor. While the power line goes through walls without any problems, the data rate that can be achieved depends primarily on the length and quality of the power line.
Which solution ultimately achieves the better results, therefore, depends heavily on the conditions in your own four walls and can best be determined by trial and error.
TipIt doesn’t matter whether it’s a WiFi repeater or a powerline adapter, a WiFi signal is generally distributed much better across the surface than up high. If you want to supply a house or apartment with WiFi over several floors, you should install a separate WiFi access point on each floor.

What can interfere with Powerline?

Since Powerline only uses the power lines, certain interference can also have a negative impact on data transmission. Wind and weather don’t really matter to Powerline, it’s the power line that counts. How fast the transmission with Powerline is depended primarily on the quality and type of power line.
In order for the fast gigabit power line to work, the circuit must meet the modern standard of the three wires neutral conductor, protective conductor and phase. This enables transmission rates that are around 60-80 per cent faster than in the circuits with just two wires that are often installed in old buildings.
In addition, the parts and components on the way from the transmitter adapter to the receiver adapter can also slow down the transmission. Overvoltage protection filters, electricity meters and residual current circuit breakers can ensure that too little bandwidth is left for data transmission and that the adapters can only exchange information poorly or not at all.
Other typical sources of interference are ballasts, power packs, dimmers, vacuum cleaners, drills and mailboxes. Even if the powerline adapters can correct errors, bandwidth is still lost.
Powerline via the power strip?
So that the data has a free path and high transmission rates can be guaranteed, the powerline adapter should be operated on individual sockets and not on multiple sockets or distributors. Another potential source of interference is separate circuits in a household. The electrician can solve this problem by installing a phase coupler.
Tip: The powerline software supplied by the manufacturer can be used to display the frequencies used for transmission between the powerline adapters. For example, if the vacuum cleaner is suspected of being a troublemaker, this can be confirmed by a drop in the displayed data rate while vacuuming.

Which powerline adapters are the best?

  • When looking for the best powerline adapter, there are a few things to consider that contribute to an optimal powerline network.
  • Integrated socket: If sockets are a rare commodity in your home, then an adapter with an integrated socket is recommended. You can operate your powerline adapter directly on a wall socket and the integrated socket is available for other devices.
  • LAN interfaces: The various adapter models differ in the number of LAN interfaces. While some only have one LAN interface, others have two or three interfaces. For example, if you want to supply printers, smart TVs and hair dryers with a powerline adapter, you should include this in the planning.
  • WLAN access point: Do you want to expand your WLAN? Then choose a powerline adapter with a ⦁ WLAN access point. This allows you to connect your devices to the adapter via WLAN and not via a LAN cable.
  • Speed ​​: Note that the manufacturer’s speed information is a theoretical value. In practice, this value is usually not reached and the speed in the local network depends heavily on factors such as the quality and length of the power lines used. Also, keep in mind that internet speed depends on your internet access. If your Internet connection is generally slow, your Powerline adapter cannot work miracles either.
  • Compatibility: If you want to expand your powerline network, make sure the devices are compatible. With older adapters, in particular, there is a risk that the latest standards are not supported or that the older adapter “thwarts” the new one.
  • Don’t be fooled by battery-powered models…
  • NoteIf you would like to use your powerline signal for more than the LAN interfaces provided on the adapter, you can expand it with a so-called switch. Plug the switch into your adapter and it will distribute the signal to your other devices through its ports.

Conclusion: The Internet is something different

Whether by antenna, telegram, carrier pigeon or radio – the exchange of information and data has always been possible in all possible ways. Data transmission via a power line may sound like a crazy idea at first, but it is a reliable technology that is uncomplicated for the user.
For those who do not want to lay new cables in their apartment or house, Powerline can offer a quick and elegant solution. After all, power lines and sockets are already available in all rooms, even in old buildings.
In order for the powerline network to ultimately meet expectations, it should above all be well planned. Depending on the type and number of devices to be connected, the desired number of LAN ports, the need for a WLAN function and the number of powerline adapters required can be determined.

Functional safety and artificial intelligence in industry

Functional safety is often applied in binary terms, with defined operating parameters being regarded as absolute. There is growing interest in using AI in functional safety applications; it is implicit in autonomous vehicles and mobile robots, so why not in industrial automation as well?

In the future, robots and people will also work together as part of automation. AI in functional safety is also possible here, but there are still a few steps to be taken

Functional safety is omnipresent in electromechanical devices. It protects us from damage in our homes, it protects workers in a factory and it protects when driving a car. There are regional and international functional safety standards for users to protect against incorrect operation, device failure or unforeseen system behaviour. The need for functional safety standards has existed for years. The degree of automation and the use of industrial robots has increased steadily in the industrial sector, especially in smart factories. Initiatives to improve operational efficiency, such as Industry 4.0, are increasing the number of electronically controlled devices in use and blurring the physical boundaries to human workers. The hybrid model, in which skilled human workers work alongside so-called cobots (collaborating robots), increases the potential security risks. In the past, safety cages and mechanical interlocks were used in many manufacturing processes, to avoid endangering employees. In today’s factories, industrial robots and automation offer tremendous flexibility and 360-degree reach, allowing better use of expensive factory space while reducing the reach of safety barriers. Security must therefore be an integral part of an industrial production facility, rather than relying on physical separation.
The primary requirement of any functional safety function is to immediately prevent the facility from causing damage to the operator and other equipment or materials in the event of an unplanned event or action. The safety functions required for this are derived by evaluating the potential risks during normal or abnormal operation and serve to stop the device safely.

AI in functional safety

The use of AI-based functional safety brings a wealth of new opportunities for risk detection and safety management to the world of industrial automation. This in turn makes compliance with hardware design verification and formal software development architectures and methodologies imperative. Adhering to established standards for system reliability is imperative, and the semiconductor industry can help with that. Semiconductor manufacturers are already aware of the trust placed in their products, and many manufacturers are implementing functional safety development tools.

Functional safety standards

There are several functional safety standards that apply to industrial equipment. IEC 61508 is a fundamental functional safety standard covering electrical, electromechanical and electronically operated devices. Market-specific standards were derived from it. IEC 60601 covers medical devices, ISO 26262 applies to automotive systems. For industrial devices, IEC 62061 applies, which is supplemented by a number of other device-specific standards. These standards include IEC 61131 for PLCs, IEC 61511 for process control applications and IEC 61800-5 for variable speed drives. ISO 13849 is another safety standard that applies to industrial equipment. It has a broader scope that includes any form of operation of safety functions, not just electrically operated.
The increasing use of robots and cobots for industrial applications has led to the development of a relatively new functional safety standard, ISO 10218. Likewise, the technical specification ISO/TS 15066 addresses the behaviour of robots.

Basic concepts of functional safety

There are two fundamental aspects of functional safety: safety functions and safety integrity. A safety function defines a feature that is used to ensure the safe operation of a machine. For example, a photodiode can detect the presence of a locking device that prevents an operator from accessing a moving belt. If the photodiode indicates that the safety function is not activated, it must stop the movement of the belt immediately. The safety integrity metric is a measure of the safety that the belt stops moving immediately. IEC 62061 specifies four different safety integrity levels (SIL1, SIL2, SIL3 and SIL4) that define how potential safety risks can be minimized to an acceptable level. ISO 13849 takes a slightly different approach to SILs, assigning five security levels (PL A, PL B, PLC, PL D, and PL E).

IEC 61508 is a fundamental functional safety standard covering electrical, electromechanical and electronically operated equipment. 
fundamental functional safety standard

Implementation of functional safety

Embedded systems are at the heart of most industrial automation applications. Any fulfilment of functional safety must include both hardware and software techniques. Microcontrollers, microprocessors, and programmable logic devices can represent the heart of processing within the hardware domain. Semiconductor manufacturers are increasingly able to offer processing devices and sensors that incorporate elements of functional safety into their architecture. For the manufacturer of industrial equipment, the integration of such devices into a design means an acceleration of the development and validation process. An example is Xilinx’s dual lockstep Micro Blaze processor. Lockstep architecture offers two fail-safe, redundant processors,
A formal approach to the design of embedded software is specified by IEC 61508. It provides a structured design architecture, validation and testing methods as a key element for the integration of functional safety functions. The use of a formal coding methodology is also recommended, but apart from MISRA-C for automotive applications, there are no functional safety or safety standards for industrial applications. For example, Xilinx recommends an isolation design flow to separate security and non-security functions.

Industrial applications with AI

AI is used in numerous industrial applications, from image processing to vibration monitoring. AI works on the basis of probabilities. So can z. B. distinguish between different types of fruit in an object recognition task. A more advanced application can detect the condition of a specific fruit. Is the fruit just ripe or overripe? In both cases, the determination is made based on the probability that the fruit and its condition were correctly identified, according to the reference image data used in training the neural network.
At first glance, the non-binary world of probability-based AI might conflict with the binary world traditionally offered by hardware-based security systems. The basic ideas of functional safety have their origins in mechanical locking methods. Even when implemented with a processor, this approach relies on a pass/fail response to a predefined set of risks.
Current functional safety standards emphasize the need to identify all potential risks when using a machine, and typically this relates solely to the operator. The risks can be determined for each individual phase of machine operation. However, this assumes that the machine is installed in a fixed position in the production hall. Therefore, the number of identified risks may be limited. But what if the machine moves can?
Another possible consideration is a previously unrecognized device condition that could pose a risk to the operator. Bearing wear, for example, means that the physical extent of a dangerous tool is beyond the safe area

61508 Safety Integrity Levels. 
61508 Safety Integrity Levels. 

Dealing with an exponential increase in potential risks

As autonomous vehicle developers know, the number of potential risks associated with driving a vehicle autonomously at speed in an urban environment is too great to quantify. AI systems with vision, lidar and radar sensor subsystems become the eyes of the autonomous vehicle. Together, the detection functions constantly scan for potential risks and visual cues, pedestrians, objects on the road or traffic lights. Functional safety is based on the reliability and integrity of the systems that control the car. Dual and triple lockstep processors and system redundancy are paramount.

AI-based functional safety in industry

Will AI form the basis of functional safety in the industry? Yes. AI can learn to adapt to a changing production environment. AI is already being used in predictive maintenance, where, for example, changed vibration signatures indicate possible wear or different engine load conditions. The condition of the system is highly relevant for functional safety. Therefore, the use of AI makes sense to monitor both asset health and security risks. AI can also learn by observing different operator patterns and constantly monitoring the location and movement of human workers. In addition, only AI can continuously adapt to and process a flood of data and find meaning in it.

What is an Ammeter

Ammeters are measuring devices that can be used to measure the electrical current in a circuit. They are available in many different designs. Effects of the electric current are used in ammeters of various types.
Ammeter, also current strength or ammeter called, measuring instruments, with which one can measure the electric current in a circuit are. They are available in many different designs. Different effects of the electric current are used in ammeters of different designs.
Ammeters must always be connected in series with the electrical device or component on which the amperage is to be measured. This is necessary so that the current flows through them, the strength of which is to be measured (Fig. 2).
As a flow meter using, Moving Coil. They differ in their structure and in their mode of operation.

Circuit of an ammeter

Moving coil measuring devices

In moving-coil measuring devices, a rotatably mounted small coil is in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. A pointer is connected to this coil. If a current flows through the small coil, it becomes a magnet itself and interacts with the magnetic field of the permanent magnet. The greater the current through the coil, the stronger the resulting magnetic field and the stronger the deflection of the coil and thus the pointer (Fig. 3). The magnetic effect of the electric current is used.

Moving coil measuring mechanism

Moving iron gauges

Moving iron gauges, also known as soft iron gauges, have a fixed iron plate in a coil and a rotatable iron plate connected to the axis and the pointer (Fig. 4). If current flows through the coil, the two iron sheets are magnetized in the same direction and repel each other. The repulsion and thus the deflection of the pointer is greater, the greater the current through the coil. The magnetic effect of the electric current is used.

Moving iron measuring mechanism

Hot-wire gauges

In hot-wire meters, a pointer is connected to a thin platinum wire that is firmly stretched between two connections (Fig. 5). If a current flows through this wire, it heats up and expands. This expansion is transferred to a pointer. The greater the current that flows through the wire, the greater the expansion. So the thermal effect of the electric current is used.


Nowadays, multimeters are mostly used to measure voltage or current. Multiple measuring devices are often moving-coil measuring devices in which the measuring range can be changed and which are suitable for measuring direct current as well as measuring alternating current.
If you use a multimeter to measure the current, you should follow the steps below:

  • Set the type of current (direct current or alternating current) on the measuring device that is present in the circuit!
  • Set the largest measuring range for the amperage on the measuring device! This is especially necessary if you do not know how big the current is.
  • Connect the measuring device in series to the electrical device in the circuit in which the current is to be measured! With direct current, make sure that the negative pole of the electrical source is connected to the negative pole of the measuring device and the positive pole of the electrical source is connected to the positive pole of the measuring device.
  • After closing the circuit, switch the measuring range down so that the last third of the scale can be read as far as possible. Then the measurement error is due to the measuring device being the smallest.
  • Read the amperage! Please note that the set measuring range indicates the maximum value on the scale!
Hot-wire measuring mechanism

Electricity Effects on people

The human body conducts electricity. Very small currents are harmless and are e.g. B. used in medicine. However, larger currents can lead to injuries and even death. Therefore, humans must fundamentally protect themselves from the dangerous effects of electric current.

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Current in Human body

The human body conducts electricity. Body fluids are responsible for their conductivity. In contrast to metals, the electrical current is conducted by ions. In contrast to metals (first-order conductors ), such conductors are called second-order conductors.

Very small currents in the range from microamps to one milliampere are harmless and are used eg B. used in medicine (eg stimulation current diagnostics and therapy).

Larger electrical currents flowing through the body can injure or even kill people.
The effect of electric current on humans depends

  • the strength of the current through the body,
  • the type of current (direct current, alternating current, high-frequency alternating current),
  • from the current path through the body,
  • on the duration of the action of the electric current.
Danger of Electricity

Caution! High voltage. There is a danger to life.

The most important current paths through the human body are shown in Figure 2. Direct currents and alternating currents that flow over the area of ​​the heart (eg from hand to hand) are particularly dangerous. They can influence the heart’s activity, lead to cardiac arrest and thus death. Larger currents can also cause burns.

Investigations have shown that the human body resistance in the current paths shown in Figure 2 is around 1500 ohms on average. In addition, there is a contact resistance of around 1000 ohms between the skin and the voltage source with which one comes into contact. The average total resistance is thus around 2500 ohms.
If the voltage is 25 V, a current of


I= 25  V / 2 500 Ω

I= 0.01  A = 10  mA

Such a current of 10 mA is not yet life-threatening, but you can usually feel its effects clearly.

Investigations on test persons with alternating current of 50 Hz showed the following typical effects of electrical currents for the hand-hand current path :

2 mAElectricity just noticeable in the palms of the hands
3 mAslight tingling sensation in the palms of the hands, as if the hands were asleep
4.5 mASlight vibration of the hands, pressure in the wrists
8 mAHands become stiff and cramped
15 mAGeneral spasm of the arm muscles reaching up to the armpits is
just possible to let go
16.5 mAComplete cramping of the hands and arms, it is no longer possible to let go, severe pain occurs.
over 40 mAand exposure times of more than 2 seconds:
ventricular fibrillation, death likely with increasing perfusion time.

Six major themes in industrial automation

With the buzz around Smart Industry, the industrial automation market is focusing on themes such as cybersecurity, big data and connectivity. Mechatronics&Machinebouw discusses the most important trends with experts from B&R and Rockwell.

Digital engineering

Digital engineering
Digital engineering

One of the key trends in industrial automation is digital engineering. OEMs, end-users, and system integrators are all looking for tools that enable them to pre-engineer and test in a fully virtual world. Of course, there have been plenty of mechanical and electrical design packages on the market for years, but the industry is ready for the next step. ‘These mechanical and electrical CAD tools produce all kinds of beautiful models. Developers now want to merge them into one platform,” says Patrick Blommaert, business manager Architecture & Software at Rockwell Automation. ‘From the combined data, they can generate a prototype of the machine, a 3D model or even a digital twin, with which they can easily show how the design is progressing and where it is going. With the ever-growing computing power, these models are becoming more and more realistic. That simplifies the consultation with the client considerably.

End customers increasingly need data so that they can better optimize their processes.
Connecting tools from different suppliers together seems an impossible task, especially because the packages come from other worlds and therefore speak a completely different language. But according to Blommaert, things are going very well these days. ‘There are standards for data exchange between all those systems. For example, you can make a direct link between Eplan’s electrical models and Rockwell’s 3D simulation tools. And you can link the data from Matlab to that. Those export and import functionalities work excellently.’

Simple software development

Simple software development
Simple software development

Bas Michielsen, sales manager for the Netherlands at B&R Industrial Automation, sees a change in software development for automation. ‘The IEC standard for PLC programming languages ​​has been around since the 1990s. Since then, the development method has hardly changed. However you control PLCs, via Structured Text, C++ or G-Code, it’s all relatively old. In the industry, you now see more and more companies that offer functionalities in pre-programmed software blocks. Think of recipe processing, motion or safety. These are things that come back with every new machine. In B&R’s Mapp technology, those functions are contained in building blocks that you mainly need to configure. The days of code knocking are largely over.’
With hardware programming becoming easier and easier, there’s more time for the heart of the matter. ‘The focus can increasingly shift to how to implement the most important functionality of the machine as efficiently and quickly as possible,’ says Michielsen. ‘More and more software platforms are available on which you can simulate extensively. Because you can do the different development processes in parallel, the available design time for software designers is stretched a long way. In theory, the software can be ready before the hardware is physically delivered. That is of course very interesting in mechanical engineering.’

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Image It is now possible to combine data from mechanical and electrical design tools. Those export and import options work fine. Image: Rockwell
The next step is fully automatic code generation, Michielsen thinks. ‘To some extent, this is already possible with Matlab/Simulink, for example. You put your model in such a system, press a button and your software rolls out automatically. That also works for PLC controls.’

In the cloud

In industrial systems today there are many levels where you can perform tasks: on the controller, on an edge device, in the factory or in the cloud. ‘Of course, there are tasks that you want to keep close to the controller. You really don’t put the controller’s CPU in the cloud’, says Blommaert. ‘But that would be possible in an edge device. You can also filter data there. It is the first layer where you can run advanced process control or other optimizations with artificial intelligence. At the factory level, you can install an IoT platform that takes advantage of the massive computing power in the cloud. In that layer, you can give more people in your organization access to the data, so that you can not only analyze the data from one factory but also compare different sites.’
It gets complicated when there are systems in a factory without an Ethernet connection. ‘I still see regularly – especially at older factories – that data is recorded on paper and later copied into a spreadsheet,’ says Michielsen. ‘On the basis of that input, try to implement an efficiency improvement. B&R has a solution for this so that you can still connect older machines to the internet and read the data. This way you can still optimize any factory – brownfield, greenfield or a mix. And then it may suddenly turn out that the old factory does indeed need to be replaced because the performance really lags behind.’

Call for data

The term has been coined: the internet of things. ‘End customers increasingly want to be fed with data,’ observes Michielsen. ‘On the basis of that, you can come up with all kinds of great algorithms to achieve efficiency gains in your process. Ideally, you have a self-learning factory that automatically optimizes production lines. We’re not there yet, of course, but technology is growing in that direction.’
The difficulty is that it is often not entirely clear exactly what data such an end customer needs. ‘Does he want to increase the overall equipment effectiveness of his machinery, is it about the quality of his end product or is it all about productivity?’, Michielsen sums up. ‘In all cases, the requirement is that the machine must generate more data. Everyone is saying that their machines must be ready for Industry 4.0, but it is much more important to first have a clear idea of ​​what exactly is needed. That is why we often sit down with the machine builder and the end customer to get everything up and running.’

Cyber ​​Security

What are the biggest challenges in the industrial automation market? ‘Not in the field of technology’, answers Blommaert. ‘Good controllers have been around for years. Of course, they could be even faster, but I see sufficient progress there. The ultimate goal of much automation is to get all the information through all ranks of the organization as quickly as possible. That means that you link all kinds of things together, that it and to converge. And then cybersecurity is a risk.’
Michielsen: ‘We notice that end customers, in particular, are very careful about connecting their machines to the internet. There is still a lot of fear that factories will be hacked. In part that is right. After all, it happens regularly that the most advanced banks and tech companies fall victim to cybercriminals. OEMs often tell us that their customers simply don’t accept plugging an Ethernet cable into the machines. As a result, they cannot save on service via remote support.’

Cyber ​​Security
Cyber ​​Security

There is still a lot of fear among plant managers that their factories will be hacked. They are therefore very careful about pinning their machine to the internet.
No one can give a 100 per cent guarantee against hackers. After all, professional cybercriminals will always find a back door, no matter how strict the security is. ‘But if you build it up in a good way, you can considerably limit the risks,’ says Blommaert. ‘You have to be aware that the risk is never completely gone, but with the right steps and the right tools, you can go a long way. You often see the strategy of working in the field with as few PCs as possible. You then put everything in an IT centre and work with zero or thin clients. This way you can distribute the content to different users and you only have one point that you have to secure properly.’
Michielsen: ‘At B&R we have a solution to gain safe access to a machine anywhere in the world. We do this via encrypted VPN tunnels that are extra secured with certificates. This is often a complex matter that usually lies outside the scope of our discussion partners. IT technology is a completely different sport than PLC control or the control of machines. We often take our IT specialists with us to the customer to explain everything properly.’

Staff shortage

Another tricky issue is the labour market. ‘That is a real concern,’ says Michielsen. ‘The industry is growing fast and to achieve all this, we need a lot of people. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of technicians. We all have to show what great jobs there are in automation.’
Part of the solution is to make the tools more intuitive. ‘That way more people can use them’, explains Blommaert. ‘Think of augmented reality. An operator scans a tag with his tablet and gets a wealth of information back, exactly when he needs it and projected at the right locations. He can also receive real-time feedback during a complicated step-by-step plan that he has to go through. It has really become a collaboration tool.

Features of the DC generator

In all types of generators, the field windings, the armature windings and the external load circuit are connected in series, as shown in the figure below.

wound generator series

Therefore, the same current flows through the armature winding, the field winding and the load.
Let, I a = I sc = I large
Here I a = armature current
sc = current field field
large = load current
There are generally three most important characteristics of a DC generator that show the relationship between different quantities, such as series field current or excitation current, generated voltage, terminal voltage and load current.

Magnetic or Open Circuit Characteristic of DC Series Wound Generator

The curve showing the relationship between the no-load voltage and the magnetic field or magnetic or open circular curve is displayed. As they are not charging, the load terminals are open and there will be no field current in the field as the armature, field and load are connected in series and these three make a closed circuit loop. Thus, this curve can be practically achieved to separate the field winding and excite the DC generator from an external source.

Here in the diagram below the AB curve shows the magnetic characteristic of the DC generator. The linearity of the curve will continue until the poles are saturated. After this, there will be no other significant change in the DC generator terminal voltage to increase the field current. Due to the residual magnetism, there will be a small initial tendency along with the reinforcement and therefore the curve started from a point A which is a little above the origin O.

Internal feature of DC series wound generator

the internal characteristic of the curve gives the relationship between the voltage produced in the armature and the load current. This curve is obtained by subtracting the drop due to the diamagnetic effect of the reinforcement reaction from the no-load voltage. Thus, the actual voltage produced (E sol ) will be less than the voltage without load (E 0 ). This is why the curve falls slightly from the typical open circuit curve. Here in the diagram below the OC curve shows the internal characteristic or the total characteristic of the DC generator.

External feature of the DC generator

The external characteristic curve shows the change in the terminal voltage (V) with the load current (I large ). The voltage of the terminal of this generator type was obtained by removing the ohmic drop due to the armature resistance (R a ) and the series field resistance (R sc ) from the actual output voltage (E sol ).
Terminal voltage V = E sol – I (R a + R sc )
The external characteristic curve is below the internal characteristic curve because the value of the terminal voltage is less than the output voltage. Here in the figure, the OD curve shows the external characteristic of the DC generator.

characteristic curves of a direct current generator

It can be observed from the characteristics of the DC generator, that as the load increases (load is increased when the load current increases) the voltage at the machine terminal increases. But once it reaches its maximum value, it begins to decrease due to the excessive demagnetizing effect of the armature reaction. This phenomenon is shown in the figure from the dashed line. The square part of the feature gives approximately constant current regardless of the external load resistance. This is because if the load increases, the field current increases as the field are connected in series with the load. Similarly, if the load increases, the armature current increases as the armature also connect to the load. But due to saturation, there will be no further increase in the magnetic field strength, hence any further increase in the induced voltage. But due to the increased armature current, the effect of the armature reaction increases significantly, which causes a significant drop in the load voltage. If the load voltage drops, the load current also decreases proportionally, as the current is proportional to the voltage according to Ohm’s law. Thus, by increasing the load, it tends to increase the load current, but by decreasing the load voltage, it tends to decrease the load current. Due to these two simultaneous results, there will be no significant change in the load current in a dashed portion of the outside Thus, increasing the load, tends to increase the load current, but decreasing the load voltage, it tends to decrease the load current. Due to these two simultaneous results, there will be no significant change in the load current in a dashed portion of the outside Thus, increasing the load, tends to increase the load current, but decreasing the load voltage, it tends to decrease the load current. Due to these two simultaneous results, there will be no significant change in the load current in a dashed portion of the outside characteristics of the DC generator. This is why the DC series generator is called a constant DC current generator.

PLC timer | Industrial Control Person | Do you really know what a timer is?

Everything around us is evolving towards automation. Here, our PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) has played a big role. In PLC automation, there are different specifications of different types of PLC programming instructions for us to use. Among these PLC ladder diagram (LD) programming instructions, the timer instruction is one of the most important instructions, and it plays a very important role. This time, I will describe the PLC timer in detail through programming instructions and functions.

Let’s start from the beginning.

What is a PLC timer?

  • The basic internal circuit of PLC timer 1. Input and output module 2. Power supply module 3. Internal timer circuit 4. Timer digital display
  • What is the type of PLC timer? 1. Turn on the delay timer (TON) 2. Turn off the delay timer (TOFF) 3. Retentive on/off timer (RTO)
  • Timer instruction address of multiple SCADA brands 1. Address for ABB PLC 2. Address for AB (Rockwell) PLC 3. Address for Siemens PLC 4. Address for Delta PLC 5. Address for Mitsubishi PLC
  • Example based on PLC timer instruction
  • What are the applications of timer instructions?

What is a PLC timer?

The PLC timer is an instruction to control and operate equipment within a specific period of time. Using a timer, we can perform any specific operation within a specific period of time. We can set up time-based activities with the help of PLC programming timer instructions. Each PLC has different timer functions. Timer instructions are used to provide programming logic and decide when to open or close the circuit. It has normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC) contacts. Let us see here the representation of the input and output timers NO and NC contacts in LD programming. The timer output contacts are displayed in coil form, box form or rectangular form. In AB and Siemens PLC, it is represented by a box shape. If you want to perform work or equipment activities within a specific time frame, you must be familiar with timers. For this, we must learn the I/O timer instructions used to write PLC programs. In Ladder Diagram (LD) PLC programming, we can set the PLC timer from milliseconds (ms) to hours (hr).

Let us look at the internal circuit of the timer.

The basic internal circuit of the HMI timer

Now, we are looking at the internal timer circuit of the PLC. The operation of the timer circuit is based on four main parts.

Each internal part of the timer circuit has various functions. This is how they are connected and constructed in a given graph.

The following are some basic terms we need to know about timers used in PLCs.

1. Input and output modules

The module that interacts with the input signal is called the input module. The input module needs to be connected to the timer circuit to provide input signals.

The module that interacts with the output signal is called the output module. The output module needs to be connected to the timer circuit.

2. Power module

The power module provides power for the normal operation of the timer circuit. It can be connected to an AC voltage source (for example, 120, 230 V AC) or a DC voltage source (for example, 5, 12, 24 V DC).

3. Internal timer circuit

The timer circuit performs set and reset functions.

If the auxiliary power supply is “on”, the timer will provide instantaneous input pulses for setting and reset operations.

4. Timer digital display

The digital timer displays the set and elapsed timing values.

For automation, these values ​​can be displayed within a few milliseconds (ms). This will make it easy to track your automation system.

What is the type of PLC timer?

For ladder diagram programming, the classification of the PLC programming timer is-

1. Turn on the delay timer (TON)

A delay timer (TON) is a programming instruction used to start instantaneous pulses within a set period of time.

Let us look at the simple structure of AB PLC delay timer programming instructions.

2. Turn off the delay timer (TOFF)

The time delay (TOF) timer is a PLC programming instruction used to turn off the output or the system after a certain period of time.

See here, the basic structure of AB PLC close delay timer programming instruction.

3. Retentive on/off timer (RTO)

RTO main function for saving or storing settings (cumulative) time.

RTO will be used when the cascade status changes, power loss or any interruption in the system.

In AB PLC, the retentive timer instructions are as follows.

We can briefly understand various types of PLC timers through examples.

Timer instruction address of multiple PLC brands

We have seen that three timers provide a delay function to control the operation of the PLC. The timer handles four main values.

  • Timer address
  • default value
  • Basic timer value
  • Cumulative value

Each timer instruction has three very useful status bits. These bits are…

  1. Enable bit (EN)
  2. Timer timing position (TT)
  3. Done bit (DN).

In AB and Siemens PLC, the output bit is usually called the “done bit” of the timer. And it indicates that the timer has reached its preset time.

1. Addressing ABB PLC

In ABB HMI programming, we can simply program the I/O timer address of the ladder diagram. We can set the timer value between ” T0 ” and ” T255 “.

You can see the I/O contact representation diagram above.

2. Addressing AB (Rockwell) PLC

For AB PLC, the address range of the timer is from ” T4:0″ to ” T4:255 “.

Among them, T4 is the file type.

The addressing format of the timer instruction with three status bits.

  1. The address range of the enable bit (EN) is from’T4: 0 / EN’ to’T4: 255 / EN’.
  2. The addressing range of the timer timing bit (TT) is from’T4:0 / TT’ to’T4: 255 / TT’.
  3. The completion bit (DN) address ranges from’T4:0 / DN’ to’T4: 255 / DN’.

3. Address of Siemens PLC

In Siemens, five types of timers can be used to write LD programs.

  • Pulse timer (S_Pulse)
  • Pulse extension timer (S_PExT)
  • Delay timer (S_ODT)
  • Delay extended timer (S_ODTS)
  • Off delay timer (S_OffDT)

The general block diagram of the timer (in Siemens ),


S-the set value or signal of the timer

TV-time variable. It is used to store time values ​​in the following form:

You can enter a time value between 1 and 9990 seconds.

R-timer reset value

Q-timer output

BI-current time in binary code

BCD-current time (binary decimal code)

4. Addressing Delta PLC

For WPLSoft software (Delta ), you can use timer addressing, ranging from ‘ T0′ to’ T127 ‘.

In Delta PLC, enter the timer address as shown in the general representation (T0, T1, … T127). And the form of the output coil is


“T0” is the timer address, “K” is a constant item

Block diagram of Delta PLC timer:

For Delta PLC, the timer will start for 10 seconds. It should be written in the form of “T0 K100”.

5. Address of Mitsubishi PLC

Both Mitsubishi PLC and Delta HMI use the same timer addressing format.

Example based on PLC timer instruction

The most basic and practical example is the use of PLC to automatically control traffic signals.

After a certain (fixed) time, each side signal must be turned on and off. Only one traffic light should be turned on at a time.

A simple PLC timer can be used to implement this logic.

What are the applications of timer instructions?

These are some basic applications of timers that can be used in the PLC automation environment.

  1. Used for delayed action
  2. Used to run or stop operations according to user commands.
  3. The RTO timer helps to record or maintain intermediate time values.

All this is related to the PLC timer. This is a topic that can be said a lot. I just talked briefly this time. If you have any questions, please feel free to ask in the comments.

If you want a detailed application of the PLC , we will talk about it later.

What can a PLC do?  Why do we use them?

  • The CPU regulates the program, data storage and data exchange with I / O modules.
  • Input and output modules are the means of exchanging data between field devices and CPUs. Indicates to the CPU the exact status of the field devices and also acts as a tool to control them.
  • A programming device is a computer loaded with programming software that allows a user to create, transfer, and make changes to HMI software.
  • Memory provides storage media for the HMI program as well as for different data.

The concept of PLC 

” PLC ” which means ” Programmable Logic Controller “, is clear. The word “programmable” differentiates it from the conventional logic of the relay. It can be easily programmed or changed according to the application requirement. The HMI also outweighed the risk of wiring change.

What can a PLC do? Why do we use them? (in the photo: SIEMENS Simatic S7-1500, credit: fully integratedautomation.com)

The PLC as a unit consists of a processor to perform the control action on the field data provided by the input and output units. In a programming device, the PLC control logic is first developed and then transferred to the PLC.

So what can a PLC do?

  • It can perform retransmission switching tasks.
  • It can perform counting, calculation and comparison of analogue process values.
  • Provides flexibility to modify control logic, whenever needed, in the shortest amount of time.
  • Responds to changes in process parameters within fractions of a second.
  • Improves the reliability of the overall control system.
  • It is cost-effective to control complex systems.
  • It aims to pull simpler and faster
  • Can work with the help of HMI (Human-Machine Interface) compute.

The following is an example of ABB programmed AC500 logic controllers.

Basic component diagram

Figure 1 shows the basic diagram of a common PLC system.

Complete PLC diagram

As shown in the figure above, the heart of the “PLC” is in the centre, ie the heart of the Processor or CPU (central processing unit).

  • The CPU regulates the SCADA program, data storage and data exchange with I / O modules.
  • Input and output modules are the means of exchanging data between field devices and CPUs. Indicates to the CPU the exact status of the field devices and also acts as a tool to control them.
  • A programming device is a computer loaded with programming software that allows a user to create, transfer, and make changes to PLC software.
  • Memory provides storage media for the HMI program as well as for different data.

PLC system size

They are usually sorted by size:

  • A small system is one with less than 500 analogue and digital I / Os.
  • An intermediate system has I / Os ranging from 500 to 5,000.
  • A system with over 5,000 I / O is considered large.

Components of the PLC system

CPU or processor: The main processor (central processing unit or CPU) is a microprocessor-based system that runs the control program after reading the status of the field inputs and then sends commands to the field outputs.

I / O Section: The I / O modules act as the “Real Data Interface” between the field and the CPU. It knows the real status of the field devices and controls the field devices through the relevant input/output cards.

Programming device: A CPU card can be connected to a programming device via a communication link via a programming port on the CPU.

Operating station: A operating station is commonly used to provide an “operating window” to the process. It is usually a separate device (generally a PC), loaded with HMI (Human Machine Software).

PLC settings

There are two basic configurations that commercial manufacturers offer:

  1. Stable configuration
Stable PLC configuration

2. Modular configuration

Modular type PLC
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